Rome started off as a small city, but eventually became the leader of the Mediterranean and beyond SECTION 1: THE ROMAN WORLD TAKES SHAPE Chapter 5: Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity Section 1: The Roman World Takes Shape Main Idea #1: The Roman Republic was located in present day Italy Main Idea #2: Roman Republic Government Structure 2 Consuls, Senate, and Tribune Main Idea #3: The role of women, education, and religion were key aspects in Roman culture
Because of geography, Italy was much easier to unify than Greece Roman Civilization Arises in Italy in the Italian peninsula located in the Mediterranean Sea, and the city of Rome sits toward the center of Italy Early Peoples Settle Italy around 800 BCE called Latins , the settled the banks of the Tiber River in small villages herding and farming Latins shared the Italian peninsula with Greek colonists and Etruscans (took their alphabet, the use of the arch, drainage techniques, and god and goddesses) What could be three similarities between all three cultures?
The Birthplace of Rome The Romans Establish a Republic by driving out the Etruscans in 509 BCE Structuring the Republic Consuls two of them, nominated each year from the senate, and their job to supervise business of government and armies Senate - 300 members made up of patricians (landholding upper class) and eventually tribunes / plebeians (farmers, merchants, and artisans) Plebeians fight for their rights earning the right to elect tribunes; Tribunes were a part of the senate Plebeians / Tribunes had veto power and eventually Plebeians were elected as Consuls Romans Leave a Lasting Legacy of government structure modern governments use today
2 Consuls Head of Government PATRICIANS 1 year term Consuls chose the Senators Senate (300 members) PATRICIANS Assembly PLEBEIANS
Life term Elected the 2 Consuls Ran the government, Advised the consuls. Elected government overseeing the work of Advised the officials including other government Assembly. judges. officials. Directed (commanded) Directed spending, the army including tax dollars
Acted as judges Approved or disapproved laws made by the Assembly Voted on laws suggested by government officials In an emergency, consuls could choose a dictator a single ruler to make quick decisions.
Made decisions concerning relationships with foreign powers Declared war or peace Both consuls had to agree on their decisions. Each had the power to Veto the other. In Latin, veto means I forbid.
Characterizing Roman Society focused on the role of women, education, and religion The Role of Women was to be loving, dutiful, dignified, strong Romans Educate Most Children, both boys and girls, and most children were literate Romans Mythology and Religion was polytheistic and adopted from the Greeks; Celebrations were based on gods in order to achieve favor from the gods on the Roman Republic Jupiter (ruler over other gods and the sky), Juno (wife to Jupiter, and protected marriage), Neptune (god of the sea), and Mars (god of war) Roman Gods Discussion Who would be Gods today? God of Democracy
God of Music God of Baseball God of Automobiles Rome began to expand after gaining control of the Italian Peninsula. However, this expansion created conflicts in Roman society that weakened and crushed the republic. Out of the rubble rose the Roman empire SECTION 2: FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE
Chapter 5: Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity Section 2: From Republic To Empire Main Idea #1: Rome dominates Carthage in all 3 Punic Wars Main Idea #2: Caesar becomes emperor (I came, I saw, I conquered), beginning of the Roman Empire Main Idea #3: The Roman Empire had different types of leaders (some good, some bad) Main Idea #4: The Pax Romana was a 200 year span considered the Golden Age of the Roman Empire
Rome Grows Through Conquest of Carthage (North Africans and Phoenician traders) Rome Fights Carthage in the Punic Wars (3 wars between 264 BCE 146 BCE) 1st War: Rome won 2nd War: Hannibal was successful in Italy, but Rome outflanked him by attacking Carthage and eventually defeating Hannibal 3rd War: sent a Roman army burning Carthage to the ground Ruling the Mediterranean The romans were committed to a policy of imperialism- establishing control over foreign lands and peoples While Rome fought Carthage in the west, it was also expanding into the eastern Mediterranean. Rome launched a series of wars in the area, and by 133 B.C., Roman power extended from Spain to Egypt Impact on Home
Conquests and control of trade routes brought riches to Rome, and wealthy families bought up huge farms called latifundia Romans also captured people through conquests and held them as slaves to work on these farms (1/3 of people in Italy were slaves) Slave labor hurt small farmers, and many became unemployed The gap between the rich and poor grew wider, and people rioted Attempts to Reform Two brothers named Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus attempted reform, but this angered the senate The brothers and thousands of their followers were killed in waves of street violence
The Roman Republic Declines and the Empire begins as civil wars begin over who should hold power, slaves began to revolt, and armies began to be loyal to their generals Julius Caesar (military commander) the Dictator took land in present day France and Belgium, the senate demanded him to disband his army and return to Rome (he did not), marched to Rome, demanded the senate to make him dictator (known for his line, I came, I saw, I conquered) Caesar Killed (stabbed to death by senators in 44 BCE), War follows as Mark Anthony and Octavian worked together to find the killers, then fought each other for power (Octavian won) Create a diagram, chart, or picture representing the difference between a Republic and an Empire Roman Republic
(Then) U.S. Republic / House of Reps (Now) The Age of the Roman Empire Dawns as Octavian was given the title of Augustus (exalted one) The Pax Romana (200 year span from Augustus and Marcus Aurelius) Brings Prosperity through peace, order, unity, and prosperity (army giving protection) The Distraction of Entertainment came in the form of chariot races at the Circus Maximus and Gladiator games, while handing out wheat, grain, and bread to the poor (pacified the restless mobs) What do we have today that might be considered similar to the Circus Maximus & Colosseum?
*Why / how are they similar? Give at least two facts supporting your answer. The Roman civilization develped as a blend of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman achievements SECTION 3: THE ROMAN ACHIEVEMENT Chapter 5: Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity Section 3: The Roman Achievement Main Idea #1: Roman Literature focused on humor, respect, history, and Greek philosophy of stoicism Main Idea #2: Art focused on realism and
idealistic representations Main Idea #3: Math & Science helped to create many advances Main Idea #4: Law Code was implemented (civil & criminal law were combined) Romans Write Literature, History, and Philosophy came from the Greeks (GrecoRoman Romans Adapt Greek Philosophy (stoicism importance of duty and acceptance) Think of three things that you just have to accept *How are those an
example of stoicism? What is the humor and/or irony in the cartoon Roman Art and Architecture Develops from Greek and Etruscan models- developed rounded dome
Romans Apply Sciences and Mathematics for Practical Use in engineering of roads, bridges, aqueducts, and harbors by people from Alexandria, Egypt, and Hellenistic people: Ptolemy (geocentric theory), Galen (medical encyclopedia), Pliny and Elder (books on geography, zoology, botany, and other works) New Law Codes Protect the Empire and would become the basis for legal systems throughout the world Leaving a Legal Legacy: innocent until proven guilty, accused allowed to face the accuser, guilt had to be established (clearer than daylight), and judges were allowed to interpret the laws Time Period Humor History Examples of
Roman Achievement Horaces satires Livy wrote the history of Rome Examples of extensions of Roman Achievement in todays society Stephen
Colbert Your textbook!!! Art Architecture expressive, arches, columns, realistic, but rounded rough also idealistic sculptures, esp. of values or important people
Statue of Michigan capital Liberty, MLK building Jr. Science Law engineeringaqueducts guilt must be as clear as daylight, judges interpret laws plumbing
innocent until proven guilty, judges interpret laws Early in the Pax Roman, a new religion, Christianity, arose in a distant corner of the Roman empire. The new religion grew rapidly, and was gradually made the official religion of the empire. SECTION 4: THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY Chapter 5: Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity Section 4: The Rise of Christianity
Main Idea #1: Roman Empire had many different religions Main Idea #2: Jesus begins preaching, performing miracles, 12 Disciples, and was crucified Main Idea #3: Christianity was spread by Peter and Paul Main Idea #4: Structuring the Clergy Pope, Arch-Bishops, Bishops, Priests, and diocese (Christian community) Early Empire Includes Diverse Religions, but as time went on people looked for more
fulfillment Jesus (Jew) Proclaims His Teachings and almost all we know comes from the Gospels (first 4 books of the New Testament of the Christian Bible (writers: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) Jesus Begins Preaching (used parables) at the Sea of Galilee, performed miracles of healing, recruited 12 disciples (apostles), eventually traveling to Jerusalem with his 12 apostles) Jesus Teaches New Beliefs: one God and 10 Commandments, preached obedience to Moses (laws) Condemned to Death in Jerusalem as he celebrated Passover, caught by the Romans, crucified The Message of Christianity Spreads by apostles and other disciples (Peter in Rome, and Paul in Asia minor) Paul (never met Jesus) Spreads Christianity in the Mediterranean, Asian minor, and Greece
Christians Are Oppressed: didnt honor Roman leaders and gods, and became martyrs (P&P) The Message Appeals to Many (love, equality), including Romans, and written in Latin and Greek Rome Embraces Christianity in 313 ACE (Constantine issued Edict of Milan freedom of worship) The Early Christian Church Develops, although it began as scattered communities Joining the Church occurred through baptism, practiced the Eucharist, women barred from roles Structuring the Clergy: each Christian community had it own diocese with 1 priest and 1 Bishop, Bishops of larger cities took on the title of patriarch (exercised power over Bishops of smaller town and cities) Differences Arise Within the Church occurred when patriarchs fought over supreme power over all other bishops, this position became known as the Pope
Problems from inside and outside the Roman empire slowly undermined security and stability SECTION 5: THE LONG DECLINE Chapter 5: Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity Section 5: The Long Decline Main Idea #1: Roman Empire declines due to several reasons Main Idea #2: Germanic Tribes and Huns attack (Rome falls) Main Idea #3: Roman Empire falls due to military attacks, political turmoil, economic weakness, and social decay
The Roman Empire Divides as it is rocked by political and economic turmoil Emperor Diocletian Shares Power by dividing the empire into two parts (Rome in the West & Byzantine in the East) Invaders Threaten the Roman Empire as the Germanic people attacked from the Rhine and Danube Rivers Migrating Nomads (Huns) Attack surrendering to Britain, France, and Spain; Rome fell Rome Is Sacked in 378 ACE by the Visigoths, Vandals (Germanic people), and the Huns (Attila)
Many Problems Cause Rome to Fall, and the problems were interrelated Military Attacks: Roman army lacked discipline and training, and began losing wars Political Turmoil: oppressive / authoritarian leaders, and civil wars between generals Economic Weakness: heavy taxes, slavery, wealth fell, and poverty increased Social Decay: decline in patriotism, discipline, and devotion to duty Did Rome Fall? Yes, but much of Rome continued (rule, common life, religion, trade) Hashtag # Activity *Give me three #s based on the invasion map provided. The Fall of Rome
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