Chapter 1: The Nature of Stress I cannot and should not be cured of by stress, but merely taught to enjoy it. - Hans Selye Hans Selye argued that stress is a a way of life. However, only recently has the term stress become a common word in our everyday language. Why do you believe this is true?
Factors that have drawn attention to stress in modern times: research has shown a relationship between lifestyle and stress-related diseases; research has indicated that perhaps 70 to 80 percent of all diseases and illnesses are stress-related;
Factors that have drawn attention to stress in modern times: rapid change is very much a part of modern society; the number of stressors in our lives is increasing;
leisure time is decreasing; and others? Dic ti eb W on s r e
st a ry 1. In your own words, define the term stress. 2. From your own observations and analysis, explain why you believe there is more or less stress present in todays society. More stressed or less stress? Before the 19th century, parents witnessed
the likelihood that only about 3 out of 10 newborn infants lived beyond the age of 25. Today, fewer than 1 in 20 children die before they reach adulthood. However, the rates of suicide and homicides for youths have dramatically increased. Which generation experienced more stress? Definitions of stress Stress is both an intricate phenomenon and a culturally defined concept based on various perspectives of the
human condition. As a result, there exists many different interpretations of stress. Popular views of stress. Eastern philosophies have viewed an absence of inner peace. Western culture has more recently stress as a loss of control. stress as viewed
ss e r St .. . s i Richard Lazarus view of stress Stress is a state of anxiety
produced when events and responsibilities exceed ones coping abilities. Hans Selyes view of stress Stress is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand placed upon it to adapt, whether that demand produces pleasure or pain. A holistic medicine view of stress
Stress is the inability to cope with a real or perceived (or imagined) threat to ones mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being which results in a series of physiological responses and adaptations. (FEAR) The Stress Response (fight or flight response)
Introduced by Walter Cannon in 1914. A survival instinct to fight or run. Meant for physical stressors. The Stress Response (fight or flight response)
Arousal also happens for non-physical stressors (mental, emotional, & spiritual). No matter if the threat is real (car accident) or perceived (a noise at night), the stress response occurs. The stress response occurs in proportion to the perceived danger. Stages of the stress response
Stage 1: Stimuli received by brain through one or more of 5 senses. Stage 2: Brain deciphers stimuli (either a threat or as a non-threat) Stage 3: Body stays aroused until threat is over. Stage 4: Body returns to homeostasis once the threat is gone.
Symptoms of fight or flight increased heart rate increased blood rate increased ventilation vasodilatation of arteries to bodys periphery (arm and legs)
increased serum glucose levels Symptoms of fight or flight increased free fatty acid mobilization increased blood coagulation and decreased clotting
increased muscular strength decreased gastric movement increased perspiration to cool body core temperature Three types of stress Eustress good Neustress no consequential effect Distress Acute (intense); Chronic (prolonged)
The Yerkes-Dodson Curve Poor Eustress Distress poor performance low underarousedbored
Low illness performance Good Maximum Performance poor performance moderate
optimally aroused high overarousedoverwhelmed High Three types of stressors Bioecological Natural elements sunlight, gravity etc. Psychointrapersonal
Greatest % of stressors perceptions, ego & identity defense Social Environment - overcrowding, hassles General Adaptation Syndrome Stage 1: Alarm Reaction Stage 2: Resistance Stage 3:
Exhaustion Technostress Information Overload
Boundaries Privacy Ethics Less Family Time Computer Dating Outdated Technology The Ever-widening Digital Divide College Stress
Roommate dynamics Professional pursuits and career path Academic deadlines Financial aid and school loans Budgeting money Lifestyle behaviors Peer groups and peer pressure
Too much responsibility w/ no authority Unrealistic expectations Corporate downsizing Inadequate training Lack of appreciation Too much to do with too little time/resources Commuting Keeping pace w/technology Poor working conditions Wellness paradigm The integration, balance, and
harmony of the mind, body, spirit, and emotions for optimal well-being, where the whole is considered greater than the sum of the parts. Wellness paradigm Spiritual well-being Emotional well-being
Mental (intellectual) well-being Physical well-being An effective holistic approach to stress management includes: Mental well-being: ability to gather, process, recall, and communicate information Physical well-being: the ability of all
bodys physiological systems to function optimally An effective holistic approach to stress management includes: Emotional well-being: ability to recognize, feel, and control the entire range of human emotions
Spiritual well-being: the evolution of higher consciousness through relationships, values, and purpose in life A holistic approach to stress management To deal effectively with stress all areas must be addressed equally to integrate, balance, and give harmony for optimal well-being
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Moves beyond primary sector, focus is on specialization and interdependence. Stratification is more fluid, social mobility increases. Industrial: More blue-collar work, results in urbanization, requires more education, weaker ties to land and extended family
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