Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Graphs Section 3 Linear Regression Mathematical Modeling Mathematical modeling is the process of using mathematics to solve real-world problems. This process can be broken down into three steps: 1. Construct the mathematical model, a problem whose solution will provide information about the real-world problem. 2. Solve the mathematical model. 3. Interpret the solution to the mathematical model in terms of the original real-world problem.
In this section we will discuss one of the simplest mathematical models, a linear equation. 2 Slope as a Rate of Change If x and y are related by the equation y = mx + b, where m and b are constants with m not equal to zero, then x and y are linearly related. If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are two distinct points on this line, y2 y1 y then the slope of the line is m x2 x1
x This ratio is called the rate of change of y with respect to x. Since the slope of a line is unique, the rate of change of two linearly related variables is constant. Some examples of familiar rates of change are miles per hour, price per pound, and revolutions per minute. 3 Example of Rate of Change: Rate of Descent Parachutes are used to deliver cargo to areas that cannot be reached by other means of conveyance. The rate of descent
of the cargo is the rate of change of altitude with respect to time. The absolute value of the rate of descent is called the speed of the cargo. At low altitudes, the altitude of the cargo and the time in the air are linearly related. If a linear model relating altitude a (in feet) and time in the air t (in seconds) is given by a = 14.1t +2,880, how fast is the cargo moving when it lands? 4 Example of Rate of Change: Rate of Descent Parachutes are used to deliver cargo to areas that cannot be reached by other means of conveyance. The rate of descent of the cargo is the rate of change of altitude with respect to
time. The absolute value of the rate of descent is called the speed of the cargo. At low altitudes, the altitude of the cargo and the time in the air are linearly related. If a linear model relating altitude a (in feet) and time in the air t (in seconds) is given by a = 14.1t +2,880, how fast is the cargo moving when it lands? Answer: The rate of descent is the slope m = 14.1, so the speed of the cargo at landing is |14.1| = 14.1 ft/sec. 5 Linear Regression In real world applications we often encounter numerical data in the form of a table. The powerful mathematical tool, regression analysis, can be used to analyze numerical data. In general, regression analysis is a
process for finding a function that best fits a set of data points. In the next example, we use a linear model obtained by using linear regression on a graphing calculator. 6 Example of Linear Regression Prices for emerald-shaped diamonds taken from an on-line trader are given in the following table. Find the linear model that best fits this data. Weight (carats) 0.5 0.6 0.7
0.8 0.9 Price $1,677 $2,353 $2,718 $3,218 $3,982 7 Example of Linear Regression (continued) Solution: If we enter these values into the lists in a graphing
calculator as shown below, then choose linear regression from the statistics menu, we obtain the second screen, which gives the equation of best fit. The linear equation of best fit is y = 5475x 1042.9. 8 Scatter Plots We can plot the data points in the previous example on a Cartesian coordinate plane, either by hand or using a graphing calculator. If we use the calculator, we obtain the following plot: Price of emerald (thousands)
Weight (tenths of a carat) We can plot the graph of our line of best fit on top of the scatter plot: y = 5475x 1042.9 9
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