Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Three Worlds Meet Beginnings to 1506 How did people first arrive in Americas? First people arrived 22,000 years ago. Land bridge between Asia and Alaska called Beringia.

Hunted large animals 12,000-10,000 years ago climate warmed and people hunted smaller animals, collected plants and berries. (adapted to environment) How did people first arrive in Americas? (continued)

10,000-5,000 years ago people in Mexico developed new ways of farming. Maize or corn Some changed from nomadic (moving from place to place) society to development of communities. Who were the Olmec?

Civilization in Mexico around 1200 B.C. Civilization developed in rainforests. Mysteriously collapsed in 400 B.C. Who were the Mayans?

Civilization between 250 A.D. and 900 A.D Located in present day Guatemala and Yucatan Peninsula Huge palaces and pyramids Written expression Who were the Aztecs?

Built empire in 1200s. Destroyed by the Spanish and Cortes. Human sacrifice to Gods Huge palaces and pyramids Written expression Who were the Incas?

Civilization started in 1400 and stretched across western coast of South America. Skill of silver mining Huge palaces and pyramids Written expression

Who were the Hohokam and Anasazi? Hohokam- settled in Southwest between 300 B.C.1400 A.D. Anasazi- settled in Southwest between 300 B.C.-1400 A.D. Lived in areas that are Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico.

Who were the Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian Indians? All developed east of Mississippi River. All are Mound Builders Created large burial mounds

Huge pyramids Who were the Kashaya Pomo? Lived in what is now California. Made up of large coastline, rainforest and desert. Hunted water birds for food.

Who were the Kwakiutl? Lived on Northwest Coast. Food sources were whales, seals, and salmon. Made totem poles Who were the Pueblo?

Lived in the dry Southwest (Arizona and New Mexico) Adobe houses Grew corn and beans Who were the Iroquois?

Lived in the forests of the Northeast. Hunted Fished Gathered fruits and nuts

What practices and beliefs did First Americans have in common? Trade routes Respected the land a resource that belongs to all groups Clashed with European idea of private ownership Believed in spirits Kinship-family Division of labor What influenced the way of life in West Africa?

Timbuktu- center of trade and learning New religion of Islam was brought to Africa Beginnings of plantations in Africa by Portuguese Led to African slave trade

Who were the Songhai? Strong rulers Trade across the Sahara City of Timbuktu Extended power over the grasslands Who were the Benin?

Kingdom in the forests of the southern coasts of Africa. Metalworkers created great works of art. Who were the Kongo? Located in

Central Africa. Rose along the Congo River. Small kingdoms held together by one ruler. What was life like in a West African Kingdom?

Lived in families with small villages. Oldest people had most influence. Valued religion Believed in living and nonliving things and creator. Division of labor. How were European societies arranged in the 1400s? Hierarchy (nobles

to peasants) Nuclear family (mother, father, children) How did the Crusades affect Europe? Crusades- series of wars between Christians and Muslims for the Holy Land (10961270) Trade increased

Created the Reformation Why did Europeans become interested in exploration? Looking for new routes to Asia for goods like silk and

spices. GOLD, GOD, AND GLORY! Prince Henry the Navigator Dias rounded Africa Vasco Da Gama reached India. What were Christopher Columbuss goals?

Italian sailor for Spain that wanted to find a trade route to Asia. Convert people to Christianity. Claim new lands for Spain. Landed on island he called San Salvador Met people he called Taino (noble ones) GOLD GLORY GOD How did Columbus change the lives of First Americans?

Started plantations Forced labor of First Americans Europeans brought new weapons 90% were killed by diseases such as small pox. How did Columbus change the lives of

Africans? Deaths of American Indians caused Spanish to look to Africa for labor. Slavery destroyed African societies and by the 1800s over 12 million Africans had been enslaved. What was the Columbian

Exchange? Transfer of goods between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There were both positive and negative impacts of this exchange. What was the Treaty of Tordesillas?

Spain and Portugal divided the Western Hemisphere for exploration. Spain could have west of line and Portugal are east of the line. What effect did the movement of people to the Americas have?

Other European countries would bring settlers to America. Meeting of three cultures: First Americans, Europeans, and Africans. Diverse society is created.

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