CELLS - Capital High School

CELLS - Capital High School

CELLS Chapter 7 CELL SIZE LAB 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cut your agar into three cubes (1x1x1 2x2x2

3x3x3cm) Put them in a beaker of vinegar (all at same time). Leave them in for 8-10 minutes and record the time. Use a spoon to remove them and blot dry. Complete the data table (see the board). Answer the questions: Did the rate of diffusion change with the cell size? Explain. B. How does the surface are to volume ratio change as cells get bigger? C. Are larger or smaller cells more efficient at A.

Organelle Nucleus Vacuoles Lysosomes Cytoskeleton Centrioles Ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Chloroplasts Mitochondria Cell Wall Cell Membrane

Function CELL THEORY All living things are made of cells Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things New cells are produced from existing cells MICROSCOPES Compound

light microscope allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image Magnifies to 1000x Stains or dyes are used to show specific features Fluorescent dies are used to tag molecules produced by cells MICROSCOPES Electron microscopes use beams of electrons that are focused by

magnetic fields can be used to see objects one billionth of a meter Transmission electron microscopes thin slices , electrons pass through the specimen - 2D image Scanning electron microscopes a pencillike beam is scanned over the surface makes a 3D image SEM images PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES All cells have a cell membrane - a thin flexible barrier surrounding the cell

Not all cells have a nucleus a large membrane-enclosed structure that contains genetic material in the form of DNA and controls many of the cells activities Prokaryotes - do not have a nucleus Typically smaller and more simple Eukaryotes

= have a nucleus Typically larger and more complex Can be unicellular or multicellular 7.2 CELL STRUCTURE EUKARYOTIC CELLS The cytoplasm is the fluid portion of the cell outside the nucleus. Many cellular structures act as if they are specialized organs. These structures are known as organelles, literally little organs.

THE CELL AS A FACTORY The eukaryotic cell is much like a living version of a modern factory. The specialized machines and assembly lines of the factory can be compared to the different organelles of the cell. Cells, like factories, follow instructions and produce products. THE NUCLEUS

The nucleus = the control center of the cell It contains most of the cells DNA, the instructions for making proteins and other important molecules Nuclear envelope = surrounds the nucleus contains

pores (holes) that allow material to go in and out of the nucleus Chromosomes carry the cells genetic information (DNA) Found in the nucleus Nucleolus a small dense region in the nucleus

Ribosomes are assembled here ORGANELLES THAT STORE, CLEAN UP, AND SUPPORT Vacuoles large saclike structures with membranes Store water, salt, proteins, and carbohydrates In plants there is often 1 vacuole filled with liquid

Also found in unicellular organisms and animals for storing and moving materials ORGANELLES THAT STORE, CLEAN UP, AND SUPPORT Lysosomes small organelles filled with enzymes Break down lipids (fats) , carbohydrates, and proteins Help break down old organelles removes junk from the cell Found in animal cells and some plant cells

ORGANELLES THAT STORE, CLEAN UP, AND SUPPORT Cytoskeleton a network of protein filaments that give cells shape and internal organization Helps maintain cell shape and involved in movement Microfilaments form a framework that supports the cell and help them move Microtubules hollow structures made of

proteins called tubulins and are involved in maintaining cell shape and in cell division Also form cilia and flagella Centrioles located near the nucleus and organize cell division in animals (made of tubulins) ORGANELLES THAT BUILD PROTEIN Ribosomes the protein factory - where proteins are assembled small

particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in all cells. produce proteins by following coded instructions that come from DNA. Each ribosome is like a small machine in a factory, turning out proteins on orders that come from its DNA boss. ORGANELLES THAT BUILD PROTEIN Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) an internal membrane system where lipids are assembled and proteins and other materials are exported from the

cell. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) the ER where protein synthesis occurs ribosomes on its surface Proteins made in the rough ER can be exported out of the cell or transported to other locations in the cell Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER) the ER where no ribosomes are found

Contains enzymes to do tasks like making membrane lipids or detoxification of drugs ORGANELLES THAT BUILD PROTEIN Golgi Apparatus - modifies, sorts and packages proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or transport out of the cell. Looks

like a stack of flattened membranes Ships proteins to their final destination ORGANELLES THAT CAPTURE AND RELEASE ENERGY Chloroplasts capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into food (photosynthesis) Found in plants and some other organisms solar power plants

ORGANELLES THAT CAPTURE AND RELEASE ENERGY Mitochondria The POWER HOUSE convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds easier for the cell to use In humans, you inherit most of your mitochondria from your mom Contain small DNA molecules which suggest they may have been descended from independent

microorganisms. CELLULAR BOUNDARIES Cell Wall supports, shapes, and protects the cell Allow water, oxygen, carbon dioxide to pass through Found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes (NOT ANIMALS) Provides strength in plants (wood is made of mostly cell walls)

Cell Membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell and supports Made of a lipid bilayer (see the next slide) PLANT VS ANIMAL CELLS PG 206 Cell Videos Intro to the Cell Review Organelles Review

CELL ANALOGY Use the organelles on your spreadsheet to create wanted posters for organelle characters that you have transformed into wanted fugitives or superheroes. ORGANELLE QUIZ 1.

Tell the basic function of the following organelles: A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J.

2. Nucleus Mitochondria Chloroplast Ribosome Nucleolus Rough ER Golgi Apparatus/Body Lysosome Vacuole Cell Wall What is the difference between prokaryotes

and eukaryotes. CELLULAR BOUNDARIES The cell membrane is made of a double layered sheet with lipids and proteins The cell membrane is selectively permeable some substances are allowed to pass and some are not. 7.3 CELL TRANSPORT Transport = The movement of materials across the cell membrane without using cellular energy is called passive transport.

Passive Diffusion - The process by which particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration PASSIVE TRANSPORT CONT. Facilitated Diffusion the process where molecules that cannot directly diffuse across the

membrane pass through special protein channels Osmosis the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane Water moves across a membrane until equilibrium is reached OSMOSIS Types of Solutions Isotonic = When the concentration is the same on both sides of the membrane Hypertonic = The more concentrated solution

Hypotonic = The dilute solution Osmotic pressure = the net movement of water out of or into a cell exerts a force ACTIVE TRANSPORT Active transport = the movement of materials against a concentration difference (requires energy MOVEMENT OF LARGE MOLECULES Cell Videos

Cell Membrane Cellular Transport CHAPTER 9 ENERGY AND EXERCISE (PG 265) Your body uses energy in the form of ATP Quick energy First few seconds (50 m of a race) use ATP stored in cells Up to 90 seconds (200-300 m) lactic acid fermentation (make lactic acid to get rid of it,

you need oxygen = breathing hard) Long-term energy Over 90 seconds cellular respiration glycogen (carbohydrate stores) are used up in 15-20 minutes followed by other molecules including fats. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ORGANELLE 1. 2.

3 . 4. A.Nucleus B.Nuclear Membrane C.Nucleolus D.Golgi E.Smooth ER F. Rough ER

CHOOSE THE CORRECT LETTER 5. 9. 6. A.Vacuole B.Chloroplast C.Cytoplasm 7. D.Cell Wall 8. E.Cell Membrane F.Mitochondria

10. MATCH THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 11. Controls what enters and leaves the cell 12. Gives support to cells, found in plants 13. Contains genetic material in the form of DNA and controls many of the cells activities 14. Makes ribosomes 15. fluid portion of the cell

outside the nucleus. 16. Controls what goes in and out of the nucleus A.Nucleus B.Nuclear Membrane C.Nucleolus D.Cytoplasm E.Cell Wall F.Cell Membrane MATCH THE STRUCTURE AND

FUNCTION 17. Storage 18. Breaks down old junk 19. Protein factory 20. Membrane that has ribosomes on it makes proteins 21. Membrane that does not have ribosomes makes lipids 22. modifies, sorts and packages proteins and other materials

A.Ribosomes B.Smooth ER C.Rough ER D.Golgi Bodies E.Vacuole F.Lysosome MATCH THE STRUCTURE TO THE FUNCTION 23. A cell with a nucleus 24. A cell without a nucleus

25. The power house 26. Structures in the nucleus made of DNA 27. Convert energy in sunlight to food A.Mitochondrion B.Chloroplast C.Chromosomes D.Prokaryote E.Eukaryote Stem Cells

What are they? Cells that can develop into different types of cells in the body. They also act as a repair system in the body because of their ability to divide so quickly. Why are they medically important? They

can be engineered to become any type of tissue which means that they could be used to treat a multitude of diseases and regenerate damaged tissues within te body Types of stem cells: Embryonic Somatic Induced Pluripotent (iPSCs)

2012 Nobel Peace Prize Last year Gurdon, 79, of Dippenhall, England, and Yamanaka, 50, of Osaka, Japan earned a nobel peace prize for the following discovery: "mature, specialised cells can be reprogrammed to become immature cells capable of developing into all tissues of the body," Ethical Issues

Embryonic Stem Cells vs Medical Uses Is this still an issue with new IPSCs?

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