Byzantium and the development of Orthodoxy: A Different Roman ...

Byzantium and the development of Orthodoxy: A Different Roman ...

Byzantium and the development of Orthodoxy: A Different Roman Empire From 395 Attempts to reconquer the west always failed despite continual effort Greek Language but Roman Law at least to the 800s Development of church/state relationship known as Caesaropapism Emperor as head of the church with power to set doctrine Patriarch of Constantinople as highest church official, appointed by Emperor and usually forced to follow his/her lead

Byzantium Development of Orthodoxy: refuted the status of the Pope in Rome, saw Pope as just one more bishop, albeit with a larger territory. Much war between popes and empire over who controlled the Italian peninsula led to bitter feelings and doctrinal differences that were political in nature in many cases. Controversies: Marriage of priests, the nature of the Trinity, the power of the laity over the church, the number of sacraments, tonsure of priests, limbo and purgatory, use of icons, veneration of Mary. Western Christianity focused on Jesus death, Eastern Christianity on Jesus resurrection (Christ Pantocrator).

Byzantium The power and glory of Byzantium continued for several hundred years. It successfully warded off the Germanic invasions, was less successful with the Bulgars and Slavs, and continued the Roman war against the Persians until it won in the early 600s. Both Persia and Byzantium were exhausted and almost ruined by this war. In the mid 7th century c. 640 the Arabs irrupted out of their homeland spreading the new gospel of Islam. Both Persia and Byzantium were targets. Persia succumbed, while Byzantium withstood the onslaught but with the loss of much of its richest territory including Syria, Palestine, North Africa, and the islands in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Byzantium Contributions to European culture: The Justinian Code: the codification of Roman law into one large volume. This allowed for (much later) Roman law to spread across most of Europe. It also gave an imperial status to such law. Architecture: the Byzantines were renowned for building. Many of their structures remain standing today in Istanbul despite the frequency of earthquakes in the region. The most famous of the is Haghia Sophia (Church of the Holy Wisdom) with its enormous dome and illuminating frescos and icons. HAGHIA SOPHIA C. 540 CE

Christianity Survives in the West The papacy became the only international institution in the Latin west, independent of any secular authority. Asserted its primacy over ALL Christians though could not enforce Christianization of Western Europe and the non-Roman (barbarian) peoples through the 900s. The Russian Church was created as part of the Eastern Orthodoxy by 975 CE. The Great Schism of 1054 split the Christian church Charlemagne or Karl der Grosser

On 12-25-800 or so it is reported, the Pope crowned the French or Frankish king as Emperor in the West. Importance is manifold: Created the appearance of a unified state; the concept of Europe Center of gravity of the Latin west moved north. Charlemagnes court was at Aachen in Germany. Period of cultural renaissance with handwriting reform (small letter and cursive) and the development of the basic educational curricula for the next thousand years Christian reconquest of Iberia begun, spread Christianity to central Europe (Saxony, Hungary, Bohemia) Silver coinage to replace gold coinage of Rome which was long gone.

The Church in the West C. 1000 and beyond Omnipresent: in all of life. Kings were crowned by the church. Religious oaths confirmed feudal contracts and trials. Abbots and Bishops were large feudatory lords. Towns and guilds created lay religious societies to give credence to themselves Most entertainment consisted of morality plays and miracle plays The church was seen as corrupt by many intellectuals and underwent some reform post 1000CE to reverse The Church Reform included the creation of a new monastic order: the

Cluniacs based in the French city of Cluny. These monks became the vanguard of reform and papal reassertion of authority. The method of election of the Pope was codified in the college of cardinals One of the greatest of the reforming Popes was Gregory VII who was determined to enhance the churchs power over society. The Church Gregorys policies resulted in confrontation with the German emperors which empowered German vassal lords against the power of the emperor effectively eroding any centralizing tendencies in Germany. Obviously this would have far reaching future effects.

In 1215 the Council of that year instituted many canon law provisions that would heighten its power and define European culture. It prohibited trial by combat, defined the seven sacraments of the church, asserted its doctrine of communion, and set up the Inquisition as a tool to suppress heretical opinion. The High Middle Ages: Universities, Theology, and Good Old Aristotle 12th and 13th centuries: first European universities founded by groups of students or teachers. Salerno-medicine Bolonga-law

Paris-theology Cambridge and Oxford-science. Others existed in Germany and throughout Europe. Primary purposes were to educate lawyers (in great demand), refine theology, and after the rediscovery of Aristotle, to assimilate Aristotelian logic and knowledge into the corpus of western thought. The High Middle Ages Theology as a discipline developed with Anselm in the 11 th century. In the 12th century, Abelard (who is quite an interesting character) showed that logic and reason could validly be used on matters of religion. Abelards most famous work is Sic et Non (Yes and No)

New texts from Aristotle and other ancient thinkers and philosophers filtered into Europe from Moorish Spain, where they had been transcribed and then translated into Latin. Along with the commentaries of the Spanish philosopher Averroes Europes knowledge base dramatically grew Thomas Aquinas (Saint) Acknowledged as the greatest of the medieval philosophers, Aquinas sought to reconcile faith and reason and championed intellectual freedom. His school of thinking, Scholasticism, was developed by him and fellow professors (schoolmen thus scholastics) assimilated Aristotle and the new thinking into Catholic theology.

None of this was done without disturbance. Many higher ranking churchmen opposed this as it would cause disruption. The popes sometimes encouraged or discouraged the new thinking as it suited their needs. The Crusades While much talked about the exact reasoning behind the Crusades continues to elude historians. The flowering of the power of the Papacy, the need to divert attention from political struggles with the Emperor, the belief that Islam was heretical all contributed to the fever of the times. Pope Urban II called for a Crusade in 1095 to retake the Holy Land from

the heretics This had the advantage of enhancing the prestige of the papacy and ridding Europe of all sorts of adventurers and nobles who upset the peace in many ways. The Crusades Crusades lasted at least 200 years, mostly failures, although the first Crusade did recover parts of Palestine and Syria for a century. The Crusade of 1204 attacked Constantinople and was a contributing factor to its demise 200 years later. Fueled a climate of religious terror. Brutal attacks on European Jews resulted in many leaving western Europe for Poland, Russia, and to

Islamic regions such as Iberia and the Middle East. An internal Crusade was conducted in the mid 13th century against heretics in France (Albigensian Crusade) more for property and gain. Results of Crusades Impact on Islam, except to ignite and maintain hatred of Christians, was negligible. Impact on Europe was enormous. Extended many Europeans knowledge past the frontiers of Europe. Brought in many new concepts and ideas such as the use of Arabic (Indian) numerals and zero. Many of the lost works of the ancient world were recovered, primarily from Constantinople at the time of the

Crusade or the immigration of intellectuals as the Byzantine Empire faded. Secular Europe in the High Middle Ages The revival of towns: the period from 1000-1300 saw the revival of trade and towns in the West. Nomadic invasions lessened (Vikings, Magyars), new technology such as a heavier plow, windmills, harnesses, helped to create new agricultural productivity in hand with the three field system. Improvements in food production encouraged the development of marginal lands. Slavery became less common (Christians could not enslave other Christians) as productivity improved.

Secular Europe Long distance trade between North Africa, the Middle East, and the West grew. This increased supply of and demand for money. Cities began to revive, some on the sites of older ancient cities, others in new areas. Growing populations helped to foster this growth. Cities were generally small (2-5,000 people) but some did grow larger such as Venice, Genoa, Florence. Many Italian cities were independent city-states. Other towns all over Europe organized themselves into leagues or federations for trade or protection. The Hanseatic League of North Germany is one of these. Flanders, in the low country (Belgium), became a center for woolen cloth production with a substantial urban proletariat.

Secular Europe Towns had the most independence where kingdoms or centralized authority was slow to develop. Thus Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands saw the rise of such places. In France and England where centralization was much greater, towns received less independence from governmental interferences. All towns were walled for several reasons. The towns attempted to control all economic activities within as well as without their walls for the same reasons: to maintain control over the manufacture, sale, and price of goods.

Economics in Medieval Europe (Towns) Guilds controlled the production, distribution, education, quality, and training within each particular craft or trade within each town. Women worked in guilds, may even own businesses, but were disallowed from guild social activities. The growth of towns over time contributed to the slow demise of serfdom especially in western Europe. Serfdom was slower to die in Central and Eastern Europe. Towards the end of the period, many independent city states were being incorporated into the newly forming kingdoms and states in western Europe, Italy and Germany being the main exceptions as no unified state would exist and the papacy resisted such incorporation in Italy.

Feudalism and Manorialsim Feudalism was a response to the collapse of centralized authority in western Europe following the collapse of the Carolingian dynasty although precursor types of this form of collective security predated it. Real authority exercised by large land holders (counts-rulers of counties). Service to a count or lord was remunerated on a non cash private basis: reciprocal lord-vassal (liege of a lord) contracts for land use, armed service, justice, and taxation. Hierarchical and the basis for European nobility up to the 19th century.

Feudalism and Manorialism Typically in this period kings were less powerful than many of the great feudal lords. This was true across the continent Kings were chosen by election in many areas until quite late in the period. Some royal houses that later became true authorities were founded during this period. (Capetian dysnasty in France up to 1789) Englands Saxon monarchy was replaced by a Norman dynasty from France (descendants of Vikings) under William the Conqueror. England was centralized by William and his successors much earlier than other states. Feudal barons continued to give trouble to English kings. Magna Carta is one result of royal/feudal irritations.

F and M Manorialism is an accompaniment to feudalism although the two should not be confused. Feudalism served primarily as a political system of sorts (with definite economic undertones) while manorialism is much more economic and social than political All relationships in medieval society were reciprocal. The lord of the manor was bound by this concept; serfs were bound to the soil but could not be kicked off. Serfs went with the manor so to speak not with the lord. F and M

Serfs and tenant farms had rights due them as well as obligations. The lord must provide protection and justice. If not, serfs had the right to sue to obtain these, preferably from a different lord. Rent paid by serfs included labor on the lords lands, a percentage of crops or goods produced by serfs, with this all being cashless exchanges. Transportation and lack of cash resulted in the necessity for manors to be largely self-sufficient. F and M As towns became more numerous, they began to buy and win self

governing right from feudal lords who were perpetually short of cash. Townsmen wrote legal and governing codes applicable to themselves without the lords interference. Many towns became republics. A saying of the time was Town air makes a man free. This was true in several respect as a serf who made it to a town and managed to stay there for a year was considered a freeman and townsman. The gradual rise of trade and a money economy doomed serfdom in western Europe with it declining after 1150 and virtually absent by 1400. Centralization of Power in the State Elective monarchy gave way to hereditary rule. While this provided

greater stability at the ends of reigns, it was no guarantee against bad rule. As kings gained power, they were able to offer better justice than feudal lords, having insight into a much larger sphere. In England, the jury system was imported from Normandy in order to increase the power of the kings justice in the counties. Kings could offer charters to towns for a fee, give them protection, and due to reciprocity could only raise taxes on the country with the agreement of councils of nobles. Centralization of Power in the State English kings learned the hard way the power of entrenched nobility

when in 1215 King John was forced to grant the Magna Carta which required English kings to honor the historic liberties of nobles, burghers(townsmen) and the church. While the Magna Carta is NOT the document of freedom that it is often made out to be, it is the foundation of the notion ( in England at least) that kings are not outside the law but must seek consensus within the realm. Over time, English kings found it expedient to call together their nobles to consult with them about taxation and revenue. Centralization of Power in the State These gatherings, which soon included a delegation of townsmen and lower gentry (knights and burgesses) were discussions with the king not to form

policy but in essence to pay for policy. The Anglo-French word for a palaver like this is: parliament Unique among the states of Europe, England created a national parliament consisting of the House of Lords (Nobles and Clergy) and a House of Commons (rich townsmen and smaller land owners). There were no local assemblies as on the continent. Over time members of the Commons were elected by a very restricted franchise and able to commit to their constituents. England, by accident, became the first large scale state to establish representative government and some limited idea of freedom. On the Continent Parliaments or councils of some sort were quite prevalent during

this time period. As monarchs exerted more and more power, they found that they must, at least for a time, listen to the advice of the more powerful of their subjects. By the late 1200s most European states had some type of parliament: Cortes-Spain/Portugal Diets-HRE and Germany Estates General- France Parliaments Generally (including in England) parliaments represented the three estates of society.

The 1st estate was the church The 2nd estate was the nobility The 3rd estate was the commons (which had a much more restricted meaning than today) Through trial and error, Europeans developed ways for most respectable sections of society to have a role in government. This distinction from ancient as well as contemporary states is notable. Terms to Define

Three field system Feudalism lord/vassal Serfdom Hanse Corporate liberties

Guilds Magna Carta Three estates Parliament House of Commons

House of Lords gentry Terms to define Gregory VII

Innocent III Anselm Abelard Thomas Aquinas Cluniac reform Investiture controversy Canossa(meeting of Pope and Emperor) Scholasticism Universities

Research Paper on Late Medieval Period Examine the Magna Carta and Compare European and compare its provisions to the US American universities; what Bill of Rights elements of medieval universities have survived? Research the historical veracity Research Huntingtons theory of of the legends of Robin Hood Clash of Civilizations, discuss

the Crusades in terms of it as the first clash between Christianity and Islam Research Parameters

Minimum 750 words typed (not counting connectors) Independent research/You choose your topic from the 4 choices Must use citations in MLA on separate page. Quotes must be limited in nature and constitute no more than 10% of content Quotes must be utilized as the means to an end This is not an argumentative paper. This is to show your ability to research a topic and prepare a preis. Due date is 10-22-16. Counts as one discussion grade.

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