Breeding Systems AgriScience 2 Animal Reproduction Why is improving organisms important to agriculture? Three main factors driving this goal:
Rising World Population Urbanization Fewer people in production agriculture What methods are used in agriscience to improve organisms? Two major approaches are used:
Controlled breeding Genetic manipulation. Controlled breeding Breeding plants or animals to achieve certain characteristics in the offspring. Considered a natural method of improving
plants and animals. Scientists control the natural breeding process. Kinds of controlled breeding: Selection Choosing a few parents with the desired traits with the intent of increasing the amount of desired
qualities in the offspring. Genetic manipulation Artificial means of producing desirable traits. Genes can be moved from one species to another.
Gene splicing is the moving of hereditary characteristics from one organism to another often unrelated organism. Hybridization Crossing of two different plants or animals Combines the traits of different parent
strains. Many hybrids are not able to reproduce. Straight breeding Inbreeding close breeding purebreeding
Inbreeding-mating closely related animals
Parent to offspring and siblings 1/2 brother and sister 12.5% inbred Uncle x niece Nephew x aunt
6.25% inbred 1/2 uncle to niece Cousin to cousin 3.125% inbred 25% inbred Closebreeding- mating animals
that share some common ancestors Purebreeding- mating animals that are not related but of the same breed.
Crossbreeding- mating animals of different breeds. Crossbreeding Systems Cross breeding- Criss-Cross
F1 - 1/2 B 1/2 L Criss-cross Brahman F1 1/2B 1/2L
F2 1/4L 3/4 B Criss-Cross Limousin F2 3/4B 1/4L
F2 5/8L 3/8 B Rotational Breeding-1st Cross Columbia F1 - 1/2 C 1/2 D
Dorset Rotational Breeding-2nd Gen F1- 1/2C 1/2 D
Hampshire F2 - 1/4 C 1/4 D 1/2 H Rotational- 3rd Generation
F2 - 1/4 C 1/4 D 1/2 H Dorset F3 - 1/8 C 1/4 H 5/8 D
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