# Breadboards and LED's with Arduino - Victoria

Breadboards and LEDs with Arduino A MICROCONTROLLER Breadboards Orientation doesnt matter, what matters is the connections across the slots: Power rail

Ground rail Inside a breadboard The wholes/slots are also called tie points Why is it called a breadboard?

Wire wrap 1960s Why use one? No soldering required Reusable Prototyping

Extending connectors for GND and Power https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/how-to-use-a-breadboard Exercise 3 Fade Run the Fade script: ,,<01. Basics>, Normally we would use the blink script as a test, but this is just to explore a slightly

different effect and using a breadboard This script uses a basic PWM (thus pin 9 marked with the ~) Note on the code: 255 modified by a fade amount (5) with a small delay (30ms) Journal entry Date it!!!

Aim, Equipment, method, experiment, conclusion For the method: fritzing diagram Also for method: a copy of the code (annotate this) Experiment: what you are exploring/changing (note it on the code that you have added to your journal) Conclusion: notes on what you found through exploring the code and changing it. Note down a real world example or application

Colour coding Does it matter what colour the wires/connectors are? Generally for connectors no But for sensors and other modules they usually follow a code: Red -> danger -> power Black/brown -> darkest colour -> GND (ground) White/Yellow -> lightest colour -> communications

Note this in your journal Exercise 4 - Potentiometer (Pot) When you turn the knob of a Pot the resistance changes, so they are sometimes called variable resistors. At a pots lowest level of resistance they let enough current though to read as HIGH (5v) At a pots highest level of resistance they let enough current though

to read as LOW (0v) So now It should be becoming familiar. Date, aim, kit, method, experiment, conclusion Add a fritzing diagram Add a copy of the code Annotate the code with notes on what changing the code does

Make some notes in the conclusion, I could use this for, I am interested in this because, it is used for x in the real world. Journal Pot What happens when you turn

the Pot? What could we use a Pot for? , , , Advanced concepts The Pot is an analog device

Computers count in bits/bytes -> range of 0 to 1023 So it is not just HIGH/LOW, it is a function with a range of 0-1023 The Arduino can read external voltages on the analog input pins using a built-in function called analogRead(). This function takes one input value, the analog pin we're using (sensorPin, which we earlier set to 0). It returns an integer number that ranges from 0 (0 Volts) to 1023 (5 Volts). (SIK circuit 2)

Exercise 5 - RGD LED , , , Where have you seen a RGB LED used? Fritzing diagram: The diagram

uses connectors related in colour to the pins of the RGB LED (yellow instead of red so as not to

confuse it with power) Notes on the code A "function" is a named block of code, that performs a specific purpose. A number of functions are already built-in to the Arduino, and you can write ones yourself A variable is a named number, they can be different data types

(more on this another lesson). You must "declare" variables before you use them, so that the computer knows about them int = integer, a named variable The const int RED _PIN = 9; indicates a constant that wont change

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