Body Composition Assessment

Body Composition Assessment

Nutrition Overview First A HUGE Win Trans fat A quick laugh and... A perspective bringer: http://greatist.com/fitness/what-olympic-ski

er-julia-mancuso-eats *now, just FYI, Ms. Mancuso is now shilling for food-like products supplements, etc. for Arbonne check out what they sell, and decide whether you think consumer health is really the goal the laugh? because were gonna need one! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7JXW 5QonYg Where to Start Information needs Details

Ex: not just low fat, but low certain types of fat; total 30-35% of total calories in fat is ok, as long as LOTS of fruit, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains and physically active (Wahrburg, 2004) We dont meet that standard! Another example (more than one, actually) the coffee thing: pressed and other choices Knowing HOW we make our choices Understanding the food environment

Risks and benefits of eating patterns What goes into eating patterns (food choices)? Preference Habit/Tradition

Social pressure Availability Convenience Economy Emotional needs Values or beliefs/attitudes Nutritional value and last, but not least, toys & freebies (outside incentives) Research on Attitudes People judge others based on how they eat

research has shown that people described as eating healthy choices are judged differently than those eating unhealthy choices often the judgments of healthy eaters are negative: less likeable, less successful, picky, unfriendly, boring, unpatriotic, unattractive, etc Different Diets and the Social Norms that go with them

What do YOU think of when you hear the word meat-eater (or omnivore) How about vegetarian? How about vegan? How are different diets portrayed in the media, popular culture? Those norms... The poor dont make good choices. http://thinkprogress.org/economy/20

14/04/07/3423590/poor-budgets-spe nding/ http://thinkprogress.org/economy/20 15/05/12/3657467/food-stamps-junkfood-ban-history/ Remember this? (probably not, several years ago) I am man, hear me roar, In numbers too big to ignore, And I'm way too hungry to settle for chick food! 'Cause my stomach's starting to growl, And I'm going on the prowl, For a Texas Double Whopper! "Man that's good!" Oh, yes, I'm a guy!

I'll admit I've been fed quiche! Wave tofu bye-bye! Now it's for Whopper beef I reach. I will eat this meat (Eat this meat) 'Till my innie turns into an outie! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGLHlv b8skQ I am starved! I am incorrigible! And I'm eating scarf (?) a burger beef bacon jalapeno good thing down! (Yeah!) I am hungry! (I am hungry)

I am incorrigible! I AM MAN! The Texas Double Whopper: Eat like a man! And now... we have this! http://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=Tx qRg2Nohso Is there a food culture? You bet! Culture simply means the ways we believe, act, and think.

What is your food culture? Is it the same as your parents? How about your grandparents? So what do we need to know to improve our choices? Know How Much (of what) We Need US Recommended Daily Allowances

(USRDA) Adequate Intake (AI) reference standard for intake needed to meet needs of 97 to 98% of healthy people the RDA when we dont really know enough to determine the RDA Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

highest amount someone can consume daily w/o risk How much (contd) Daily Values (DV) appear as %s on food labels made up of two components Reference Daily Intakes (RDI)

recommended amounts of 19 vitamins/minerals (micronutrients) Daily Reference Values (DRV) recommended amounts for macronutrients (such as fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol) Labels a good beginning Reading labels http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingH ealthy/NutritionCenter/HeartSmartShoppin g/Reading-Food-Nutrition-Labels_UCM_300

132_Article.jsp Grams to ounces: http://www.metric-conversions.org/weight/ grams-to-ounces.htm Misleading labels http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLa beling/LabelingNutrition/ucm111447.htm Food* is getting bigger, along with us! (*and drinks most people WAAAAY overpour alcoholic beverages! Even bartenders tend to overpour, by 25% when using short glasses, and by about 3%

when using tall, slim glasses.) Understanding alcohol servings Its not as easy as you think. For more info on what people THINK are servings of alcohol, check out an interesting lit review in the neat, new, icing on the cake page First, whats happening to our dishes and with what effect?

Plates are, on average 7 inches larger than just 40 years ago Muffin pans have bigger cups, etc. We get used to looking at bigger food containers, bigger food items; we experience unit bias if we see a certain size scoop, spoon, bowl, mug, etc, we think thats the size/amount of food or beverage we should have Portion Distortion How much BIGGER are we eating?

http://www.wendys.com/food/Product.jsp?family=1&product=4 Think about it . . . . What are the plates like where you eat? What are the serving sizes like?

What variety of plant-based foods are available? What does YOUR usual plate look like? How much of your food is brown or white? How much is green? How much is red, yellow, orange, or purple? How hard would it be to change how you eat? Question? How much of your food (in a typical day) is brown or white includes

fried foods & refined grains (rice, pasta, breads that are NOT made with whole grains) How many servings do you get (in a typical day) of vegetables? How many are potatoes, corn, or peas? How many are green (dark green leafy or cruciferous)? A typical lunch???

Cheeseburger (510 cals or MUCH more) Lg fries (570 cals) Soda (310 cals a 12 oz can is ~140) Total 1390 Total needed for a typical 150 lb person ~500-600 How to burn off the excess? Try jogging, 1 hr nonstop, at ~7mph (~8.6 min mile)!!!!!! http://www.shapeup.org/interactive/phys1.php How We Eat and Move Population dietary patterns: Calories,

fats, sugars, salt, & protein Fruits, vegetables, & fiber Population physical activity (PA) patterns: 60% of US adults too inactive** actually, more like 80% now... 25% not active at

all Womens risk What Shape is Our Pyramid? The average US diet: Taken from www.fda.gov/fdac/ departs/196_upd.html Whos overweight, why, & what are the risks?

66% of US adults; 1/3 of all breast, colon, endometrial, kidney, and esophageal cancers; Pre-pregnancy obesity linked to birth defects (Waller et al., 2007) Individual and societal costs; Energy balance tied to behavior; Root causes of behavior The basics

Proteins Fats Carbohydrates Vitamins Minerals Water *Of these, protein, carbs, and fat provide energy (in calories). Protein and carbs (4 cals

per gram), fat (9). A few more details - fats Types of fat: Saturated have all the hydrogen they can hold butter and lard, raises LDL Monounsaturated lacking two Ho atoms olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil Polyunsaturated lacking four Ho atoms safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean, and cottonseed oils http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2003/503_fats.html Fats contd Hydrogenated more solid, preserves

& leads to trans fat: raises LDL, lowers HDL (Trans fat also occurs naturally in red meat and dairy) Cholesterol dietary cholesterol raises LDL More on trans fat trans fat labeling: Remember,

partially hydrogenated oil means some trans fat. It may SAY 0 grams, but loophole: <0.5 gram per serving = 0. Is 0.5 grams a big deal? You decide! Docs recommend max of 1 g per 1,000 cals a

day Protein Types of protein & how much we need: Complete all nine essential amino acids (body cant make these) Incomplete missing one or more essential amino acids Athletes about 1.5 times what most people need (but most Americans are already doing at least that)

(American Council on Exercise, 1999; Fulgoni, 2008) Excess is stored as fat Most of us need 0.80 g of good quality protein/kg body weight/day generously estimating (Food & Nutrition Board,

IOM, 2005) http://www.metric-co nversions.org/weight/ pounds-to-kilograms. htm Even easier estimator about .36 x weight in pounds = about # of grams of protein... So how much is that?

If you went to the lbs to kg calculator and put in 150 lbs, you come up with 68 kg. So 0.8 grams of protein per kg, at 68 kg = 0.8 x 68 = 54.5 grams per day for a 150 lb person. (or, simply, 150 x .36 = 54 g!) Take a look at this link and the following slide to see how quickly protein can add up: https://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12 354500/Data/SR25/nutrlist/sr25w203.pdf So how much is that? 2 sl wheat bread is 8g

3oz canned tuna is 22g this chicken breast is 31g 1.5 oz cheese (4 dice) is 11g Carbs Types of carbohydrates: Simple sugars [short chains of oses (including fructose and galactose) that break down as glucose] Complex starch and fiber (long chains of glucose)

Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins and minerals support body processes, provide no energy Two types of vitamins: Fat-soluble store in body; excess can be toxic (A, D, E, & K) Water-soluble excrete in urine; megadoses can also be toxic (B & C) Antioxidants certain vitamins (C, E, and Betacarotene [a precursor to vitamin A]) function as antioxidants. That is, they protect other materials from being oxidized by being oxidized themselves. Minerals required in small amounts; can be very toxic if excess. Problems with excess nutrients:

Protein calcium excretion & excess as fat Fat obesity, high bp, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, and cancers (colon, breast, uterus, and prostate) Carbs with simple (short chain), excess is stored as fat The Food Environment

Schedules Work/school places Living situations Neighborhoods Finances Social influences Politics Industry Labels, schmabels...

http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRe gulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulat oryInformation/LabelingNutrition/ucm 385663.htm#QA http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocum entsRegulatoryInformation/LabelingN utrition/UCM387451.pdf And those new proposed guidelines... Guess whos fighting change this time?

same ol usual suspects: http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/Manufact urers/DGAC-report-ignores-evidence-says-A merican-Beverage-Association http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/Suppliers 2/Meat-Institute-slams-flawed-DGAC-DietaryGuidelines-report http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/ 2015.asp#resources http://www.nel.gov/category.cfm?cid=50 Starting to see a parallel with the good ol tobacco industry...?

if you have time and want to: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=6UsHHOCH4q8 So much information, how can I use it? Lets try the new pyramid http://www.mypyramid.gov/ How much different is it than the old? What does it do for you that the old one did not? What still needs to be changed?

Seen MyPlate yet? http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/images/healthy-eating-plate700.jpg Remember that the basics dont change Take a deep breath! Ask yourself what do I already know? Then ask whats new about what Im hearing?

Most important, ask who wants me to know this information, and do they benefit in some way from my knowing it? And now for a REAL basic . . . . Breakfast research shows that, for teens, the more often they eat breakfast, the lower their BMI; also more carbs and fiber, less cals from fat w/regular breakfast! (Timlin, Pereira, Story, & Neumark-Sztainer, 2008) Where are you in this?

Percentage of Adults Who Reported Eating Fewer Than Five Servings of Fruits and Vegetables a Day, by Sex, 2003 What can one person do? Know recommendations for his/her own gender, age, and activity level;

read labels; look for alternative fast food; be open to changing tastes; critically think about food messages; decide whether or not you can slow down; ask for help/advocate for change How much soda do you drink and why should you care?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ax_UhIDAFHc http://lancaster.unl.edu/nep/thinkdrink.htm http://www.elements4health.com/soda-consumptionlinked-to-higher-risk-for-kidney-disease-inwomen.html How about diet soda? http://www.webmd.com/diet/news/20050613/drinkmore-diet-soda-gain-more-weight http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/41479869/ns/healthdiet_and_nutrition/t/daily-diet-soda-tied-higher-riskstroke-heart-attack/#.TqCJZnHgzzc Weve talked about what to cut . . . But what do we need more of? again, fruits and vegetables

40% of vegetables Americans eat are peas, corn, and potatoes whats wrong with that? high simple carb content (recall where potatoes go on HE pyramid) makes them more energy dense (more cals/gram) Potatoes raise blood sugar faster and higher than equal amounts of table sugar Potatoes not linked to same health benefits as other veg/fruit, and mean fewer servings of leafy green & cruciferous vegetables

variety colors, different whole grains, etc. fiber age+5 rule vs. what we get! insoluble bulks up, speeds transit time soluble improves blood lipids profile Whats wrong with . . . ? non-whole grain breads, cereals, cooked

grains, etc just any ol brown bread very little fiber simple carbs that act like sugar biologically unless enriched, nutritionally stripped Energy Dense, Nutrient Poor (EDNP)

molasses is what makes it brown juice vs fruit, TONS more sugar and calories, next to 0 fiber (usually exactly 0) Whole, shmole, whats the difference? Refined or white grains have certain B vitamins and iron added back in, but NOT the fiber. Thats gone forever. Whole grains are much more

nutrient dense that is, they provide better nutrition for your caloric buck. Whats wrong with ? (contd) calcium recommendations industry-influenced no good evidence in support

actual conflict with international evidence & recns higher doesnt -> more absorbed UK of 700, others ~500 dont work for many people current ones add an easy 300 cals per day!! dairy products also cause excretion (not the most efficient source) may have other risks

High galactose intake associated with ovarian cancer High calcium associated with prostate cancer Calcium (contd) us as related to calcium our use of dairy is relatively new our ancestors got calcium from plants

increased loss due to high sodium high caffeine high protein (particularly animal protein) high fat (particularly animal fat) high phosphorus low potassium low magnesium (get in Med-style diet and in leafy

greens) Calcium (contd) mustache ads misleading, benefit of > intake is ONLY for Caucasian and Asian women & only in bonebuilding years milk your diet ads controversial, have been stopped

High intake countries are high fracture countries Bone mass isnt equal to bone strength 2 serious policy errors Emphasis on intake vs.

retention Equating calcium w/dairy Some calcium good news Re calcium, there are other ways*

Supplement one supplement that may actually work better than food! (make sure it comes with Vit D) Exercise wt-bearg for lower body, wt-traing for upper kale, collards, beans also contain K to help retention almonds, carob, molasses omega-3 fatty acids** (fish, tofu, flaxseeds, walnuts; flaxseed oil, canola oil, soybean oil) oranges and grapefruit the actual fruit, not ONLY fortified juice *higher absorption than milk, and they all do other good things, too!

Fiber sources http://www.wehealny.org/healthinfo/ dietaryfiber/fibercontentchart.html Splenda, etc Questions remain, although epidemiological studies have not shown strong evidence of risk The Precautionary Principle might be indicated here . . . .

Other Issues Mercury risks vs. fish benefits http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/graphic/2006/08/07/ GR2006080700867.html? sid=ST2007102200863&wpisrc=newslet ter&wpisrc=newsletter

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