Bio1H Midyear Exam Review - Mr. Kozel's BHS Biology

Bio1H Midyear Exam Review - Mr. Kozel's BHS Biology

Bio1H Midyear Exam Review Unit 1: Biochemistry and Digestion Topic 1: Nature of Matter Atoms, Molecules Molecular and Structural Formulas Matter that makes up living things Water!!! SPONCH

Topic 2: Bonding and Properties of Water Ionic vs Covalent Bonding Nonpolar covalent vs Polar Covalent Water is a polar substance Cohesion

Adhesion High Specific Heat Density of Ice Topic 3: Basic Chemistry Ph Scales Chemical Equations Reactants Products Balancing equations Topic 4: Organic Molecules

Carbon Based and Functional groups Polymer vs. Monomer Dehydration synthesis Degradation hydrolysis Topic 4: Organic Molecules Carbohydrates - energy storage, structure Monosaccharide - glucose, fructose Disaccharides - sucrose, lactose Polysaccharides - starch, glycogen Lipids - energy storage, insulation, signaling

Triglycerides - saturated and unsaturated Phospholipids Proteins - transport, enzymes, structure, signaling, and more Amino acids (Monomer) Protein folding - effected by amino acid polarity Nucleic Acids - Information molecule Topic 5: Chemical Reactions and Enzymes

Metabolism Exergonic vs Endergonic Topic 5: Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Enzymes - biological catalysts Enzyme-Substrate interaction Active sites Topic 6: Digestion

Purpose of Digestion Organs and structures Path of food Helper organs Location of digestion Each organic molecule type Enzymes involved Absorption Structure and Function

Topic 7: Scientific Method Viewed through Enzyme activity What factors affect enzyme function? pH Temperature Enzyme concentration Hypothesis If (the independent variable affect the dependent variable), then (this is my specific prediction). Control groups vs control variables

Unit 2: Dynamic Cell Topic 1: Microscopy Light microscopes Electron microscopes SEM TEM Topic 2: Cell Types and . All cells have

Cell membrane Ribosomes DNA Prokaryote vs Eukaryote How can you tell the difference? Animal vs Plant How can you tell the difference? Organelles Why are cells small? Surface area to volume ratio must be high!!

Topic 2: Cell Parts 1. 2. Manufacturing 1. Nucleus 2. Ribosomes 3. ER (Rough & Smooth)

4. Golgi apparatus Breakdown 1. Lysosomes 2. Vacuoles 3. 4.

Energy Processing 1. Mitochondria 2. Chloroplasts Support, Movement, Communication 1. Cytoskeleton (includes cilia & flagella) 2. Cell membrane 3. Cell Wall Topic 3: Cell Membranes Fluid Mosaic Model Phospholipids, Proteins,

Carbohydrates, Cholesterol Selective Permeability Chemical Properties polarity Size Topic 4: Membrane Transport

Concentration Gradient Simple Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Active Transport Endo/Exocytosis Topic 5: Energy ATP - universal unit of energy in ALL living things ATP is used for Cellular Work

P Pi + Energy P Energy +

P P P P i Topic 6: Photosynthesis Chloroplasts Light Reaction

Review the steps of the Light reaction Highlights. Water split by enzyme, oxygen formed, photosystems, ETC, ATP formed via chemiosmosis, NADPH formed Calvin Cycle 3 phases Highlights

ATP and NADPH used to drive the cycle Many enzyme catalyzed steps CO2 taken in and used Glucose formed Topic 7: Cellular Respiration Converts energy in sugar to energy in ATP Occurs in plant and animal cells Anaerobic respiration

No oxygen Low ATP output Ethanol fermentation - yeasts Lactic acid fermentation - us

Oxygen Mitochondria used High ATP output 3 stages Aerobic respiration Unit 3: Body Systems Topic 1: Gas Exchange

Respiratory System Anatomy Simple Diffusion of Gases Diaphragm Smoking Topic 2:Circulation Heart Anatomy Vessels

Structure and function Double circulation Topic 3: Endocrine System Endocrine System Glands Hormones Lipid vs Protein Insulin-Glucagon PTH-Calcatonin

Topic 4: Nervous System Neuron Structure and Function Action Potential Neurotransmitters Synapse Reflex Arc Brain Cerebellum Cerebrum Brain stem

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