Best Practice Forum Reducing the Risk of Trauma and Re ...

Best Practice Forum Reducing the Risk of Trauma and Re ...

Best Practice Forum Reducing the Risk of Trauma and Re-Traumatisation 10.30 to 13.00 17th October 2014 Committee Room 3, House of Lords. Westminster The Solihull Approach: Understanding Your Pupils Behaviour

A pilot study in Four Primary Schools Dr Alex Hassett Principal Lecturer and Senior Consultant Salomons Centre for Applied Psychology Overview of the Talk The Understanding Your Pupils Behaviour Solihull Whole School Approach Brief overview of what makes it different

The Research Quantitative and Qualitative Results Personal Reflections The Solihull Approach: Understanding Your Pupils Behaviour

Based on the original Solihull Approach Framework The Solihull Approach supporting relationships to improve outcomes Psychoanalytic theory (Bion) Child Development research (Brazelton)

Behaviourism (Skinner) 5 Trauma No only useful for educators in understanding the behaviour of all the children in the classroom and thinking about how they manage their behaviour

Also enables teachers and support staff to understand the behaviour of children who have been neglected and experienced trauma Solihull Approach 6 Secondary Trauma The role of containment at the individual,

classroom and school level has an impact on educators ability to understand and manage some of the powerful emotional and behavioural communication of children who have been traumatised Emphasises why support for educators is key Solihull Approach 7

Aims of the Solihull Approach Training Provide the framework of the Solihull Approach model for understanding your pupils behaviour to support pupils to learn Understand how relationships affect behaviour Understand the importance of relationships for brain development Provide a framework for thinking when learning about

behavioural techniques 8 Aims of the Solihull Approach Training Enable practitioners to apply their knowledge of behavioural techniques more effectively through understanding their pupils behaviour This training does not aim to teach behaviour management techniques. There are many other trainings and resources

available for this. This training aims to put behaviour management techniques into a framework that will increase their effectiveness 9 Why the Solihull Approach maybe useful Helps with professional responsibilities and stress Provides a framework to help 'contain' role as a

professional worker Containment from colleagues may be especially helpful when working with particularly challenging or difficult situations Provides a shared language Helps decision making Supports the safeguarding process capacity to think and calm communication 10

Brains develop in the context of a relationship Solihull Approach links to SEAL Solihull Approach Model and training supports SEAL, explains why it is so important and sets it in a theoretical context Containment and reciprocity: - supports staff in recognising needs of individual and enabling them to reach their potential

- promotes emotional health and wellbeing pupils Solihull Approach supports the 5 broad social and emotional aspects of learning Self awareness Managing feelings Motivation

Empathy Social skills 12 Whats different Makes the links to pupils behaviour more explicit as well as to behaviour management Makes the links between containment and reciprocity and learning more explicit

Thinking not only about the relationship/interaction between child and educator but also within the broader school context Whats different Emphasises the relationships between educator and pupils and the relational context of effective behaviour management

The Solihull Approach THEORETICAL MODEL Containment for Learning Thinking about the impact of emotions on our capacity to concentrate, think and learn.

Activity Containment in Schools Think for a minute about a child in your classroom or school where the child needs to calm down to learn Share some of the ways you help the child calm down in order to restore their capacity to think and learn Containment in Schools

Effective teaching and learning take place in a containing environment Teachers need to feel contained enough to teach and pupils contained enough to learn Containment and the brain Parallel process

Containment and Learning Students who are anxious, angry or depressed dont learn; people who are in these states do not take in information efficiently or deal with it well.... when emotions overwhelm their concentration, what is being swamped is the mental capacity cognitive scientists call working memory the ability to hold in mind all information relevant to the task at hand. (p.8)

Goleman, D. Emotional Intelligence (1995) Excellence and Enjoyment: social and emotional aspects of learning. Guidance. New York: Bantam Books Solihull Approach 20 The Solihull Approach THEORETICAL MODEL

Reciprocity In The School Rhythm of building up and calming down Link to containment are children in the best state for thinking, is their arousal system lower, are they calmer and ready to learn? Reciprocity in lessoning planning building up to an activity or piece of

learning and then winding down Activity: Reciprocity In The Playground How does your school help children decelerate from the excitement of the playground to transitioning into the classroom?

Reciprocity Look away Chase and Dodge Rupture and Repair Good enough parenting The Solihull Approach THEORETICAL MODEL How is brain development relevant to

behaviour management? Activity: Think about one way in which knowing about brain development might help behaviour management? Regulation of behaviour, emotion and impulses 26

How can you use containment and reciprocity to inform behaviour management? How might containment help behaviour management? How might reciprocity help behaviour management?

Solihull Approach 27 Managing your pupils behaviour Being sensitive to individual childrens needs will help the child learn to regulate their feelings enough so that they can take in and process information

Understanding your pupils behaviour will help you in managing their behaviour in class Professionals have a range of behaviour management strategies and toolkits available to them Solihull Approach 28

What do we mean by Behaviour for Learning? the containment of childrens emotions/anxieties so that the child can concentrate and think reciprocity between the teacher and child so that the child is regulated enough to take in and process information optimal brain development so that the

child has neural pathways to both self regulate and to learn Solihull Approach 29 The Research A pilot study in Four Primary Schools

Background to the study Part of a consultancy and training and development programme based run by the Salomons Centre for Applied Psychology in Kent in collaboration with Solihull Approach

Funded by the Local Authority and Primary Care Trusts The research What impact does the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Pupils Behaviour on teacher levels of stress, anxiety, mood, sense of teacher efficacy, self-esteem at 6 months after the training

Challenges Around Measuring Outcomes for Preventative Interventions What do we measure? How do we know it was due to the training? Challenge around measuring outcomes on children from training delivered to practitioners

Long-term studies needed Rationale for Measuring Teacher Outcomes Hypothesis It is argued that by understanding and using the approach teachers will feel more contained themselves and will be in a better position to be attuned to their pupils, the parents and colleagues behaviour

In doing this they will be less stressed and feel more able to do their jobs Methodology The studies focus in on a group of teachers from 2 primary schools in Kent. One the experimental group received the training the other the control (this group received the training after the research if they are interested). In order to assess the impact of the training a pretest follow-up at 6 months design was be used.

Interviews were conducted with teachers from the school receiving the training Measures Professional Quality of Life Scale (PROQOL) (Stamm, 2009). The ProQol comprises three discrete scales that measure: Compassion satisfaction the pleasure that one derives from being an effective caregiver

Burnout feelings of hopelessness, difficulties in dealing with work or carrying out the work effectively Compassion fatigue psychopathological symptoms associated with secondary exposure to stressful events. Measures The Robson Self Concept Questionnaire (Robson, 1989) self-report scale measuring

self-esteem. Teacher Efficacy Scale - Guskey, T. R., & Passaro, P. D. (1994) looks at teacher efficacy in terms of internal and external orientations. Measures The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment Version 7 (GAD 7; Spitzer, Kroenke, Williams, et al; 2006) measures

levels of anxiety. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, Kroenke, Spitzer, Williams; 2001) measures mood i.e. feelings of depression. The delivery School 1: 3 twilight session 26 staff including teachers, support staff and

administrators School 2: Full INSET day and a twilight session 30 staff including teachers, support staff and administrators Extended Due to Interest 2 other schools offered to participate based on the response from the 2 initial schools

The delivery School 3: Full INSET day and a twilight session 12 staff including teachers, support staff and administrators However support staff (4) did not come to the twilight session School 4:

Full INSET day and a twilight session 54 staff Support session All schools were offered 6 follow up support sessions Only School 1 took up the six sessions. Quantitative Results

43 Findings School A Six month after receiving the training showed a statistically significant: increase in satisfaction with their helping role decrease in feeling burnt out/stressed increase in self-esteem

increase in teacher efficacy scores School B which received no training only showed an improvement in teacher efficacy over the period. Qualitative Data Collection 4 staff were interviewed from School 1 nine months after the training A further 3 one year after the training

A semi-structured interview asking about their views on the training, whether there had been any impact, what they felt had facilitated and hindered the process A thematic analysis of the interviews was undertaken Qualitative Results

46 Teachers Views on the Training Overall teachers found the following useful: Offered a framework that underpinned all aspects of the work they do Focus on the relationships not only with pupils but teachers and support staff and parents as well Focus on well-being and its link with learning

Teachers Views on the Training All the interviewees felt that the overarching framework had provided the theory and scientific back-up for what they were doing. For example: Children who had experienced trauma, fidgeting made sense not as naughtiness but as an attempt to self-regulate

Having time to share your struggles with colleagues now made sense in terms of containment Teacher Views on the Impact Staff reported that it had impacted on their interactions with The children, The parents and

Other staff members Impact on Interactions with Children Offered a different perspective on behaviour Taking a developmental perspective Taking the child's perspective Understanding where certain behaviours may be coming from Understanding the theory behind why children

may behave the way they do Changed perspective on behaviour Examples: Firstly I didnt realise how big behaviour was, which is quite strange Ive been teaching now for a million years anyway Ive been looking for like a quick fix for a particular child and then I realised that it needed to be bigger than that

Changed perspective on behaviour Its changed my views of behaviour. So sometimes when I see, what I would ascribe to not doing as they were told, you know, fidgeting, or so-and-sos definitely got ADHD, now Im looking more perhaps, thinking why are they behaving this way, whats the behaviour showing me apart from the surface impression.

So Im perhaps more lenient? I dont know, I try to be more understanding perhaps. Taking the child's perceptive Rupture and repair = falling out and building bridges the whole dance of when youre falling out and building bridges, that, those were the two bits that really I think about and could use. And I can sort of see it in children now when theyre trying to, like if Ive been cross with them for doing something I can see now

that theyre trying to, when they come up and say Oh can I just show you this Miss X and I know its because theyre trying to build bridges again and now that Im more aware of it and of why I sort of tend to maybe give them more time with that or make sure that Ive actually responded rather than thinking that oo hang on Ive just got to do this, I try and make a point of saying yeah, you know, thats great, well done Im really pleased so that they know that everythings fine whereas I didnt really know to think about that before I just thought oh how lovely.

Chase and Dodge Examples: Chase and dodge realising that making children look at you when youre talking to them is not always useful particularly if they are already stressed (or if youre stressed out) Using containment with behaviour management

Theres somebody in my class who joined quite recently, quite challenging behaviour. And as well as very firm boundaries I have used the reflecting back to him how he is feeling and erm, yeah its worked. In terms of what youve noticed about the response to that? When I say its worked, its enabled him to calm down and be more reflective himself to work out a bit more in other words to think hes actually said its helped me to think twice so I think thats got to be rather good.

Yeah its also really good that HE could say its helped me think twice Yes, I know he doesnt always think twice but at least he realises that you can think twice, you know. Hes a very intelligent child, but erm he needs to take charge of his emotions rather than just let them run riot Impact on themselves Feeling less stressed Own well-being

Confidence in their ability Several teacher mentioned that having a different perspective and support from other staff has made them feel more relaxed Containing Teachers Anxieties Lead to them Being More Reciprocal Talking about her difficulties managing a young boys behaviour as she knew he had been abused and felt that as she was not a mental health

specialist she may do something that would be damaging to him and so found it hard to respond to him a teacher said: Containing Teachers Anxieties Lead to them Being More Reciprocal I sort of could use that with him and that made me again more relaxed with him so that I could sort of, erm because I was worried I was doing the wrong thing having someones input

in that way helps me think that Im not going to do him damage by acting the wrong way. Because particularly because hes got certain needs, so generally I dont worry about that so much but when theres certain children that you know certain things have happened in the past, its definitely more of a worry that youre going to do more damage so having someone to then talk about things you just get the reassurance that actually its ok and you know you can adapt things and everything. So in that way, Ive definitely used that as well.

Impact on Interactions with Parents Containing parents feelings Understanding their perspective Impact on Interactions with Other Staff Members All the staff reported that staff relationships / interactions had changed:

More sharing and openness A willingness to show vulnerability Not reacting so fast to things People being more amenable to discussions with other staff Felt the SA offered a structured way to think about their interactions Led to changes in support structures

Morning briefings Planning, Preparation and Assessment time Phase Group Time

Staff Meeting Time Focus Group All focused on joint working and sharing information about pupils particularly those with challenging behaviour Limitations Sample size

Matching of schools Could not exclude other factors However still showing promising signs Tentative Conclusions Both the quantitative and qualitative data suggest that the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Pupils Behaviour has had a positive impact on teachers

The quantitative data suggests there has been an impact on teachers interactions with their pupils, the parents and colleagues and it has led to wider school changes. Data from the other schools School B: increase in compassion satisfaction on ProQol School C: no significant difference

School D: no significant difference Suggests that the support sessions are a key to embedding the ideas from the framework. However this needs further research. Challenges Not all staff taking up the approach Time and funding Support sessions take up and how they are

structured Parents not having the same information Facilitators Trained as a whole staff importance of including support staff and admin Working across the years Support in place

Learning from the experience Not being a teacher Using whole school, classroom and individual examples Size of the group Twilight versus INSET day and twilight Composition of the group matters Resource packs Some teachers views that were challenging

Not having time how much time spent on not planning around disruptive behaviour You are making excuses for poor behaviour / poor parenting It is not possible to use the approach when dealing with the range of needs in a class Its not fair, we need to treat all children equally Children getting one up on you

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