B2C E-COMMERCE - Yale University

B2C E-COMMERCE - Yale University

CS 155b: E-commerce Lecture 17: April 12, 2001 Introduction to B2C E-Commerce (Acknowledgement: Helen Chiang) E-Commerce Definitions Electronic commerce is a set of technologies, applications, and business processes that link business, consumers, and communities For buying, selling, and delivering products and services For integrating and optimizing processes within and between participant entities What is B2C? B2C Commerce: Interactions relating to the purchase and sale of goods and services between a business and consumerretail transactions. Novelty is that retail transaction is done on the Internet, rather than a brick and mortar store location. Technical evolution of B2C from brick and mortar model not new. Revenue Models Sell goods and services and take a cut (just like B&M retailers). (e.g., Amazon, E*Trade, Dell) Advertising Ads only (original Yahoo)

Ads in combination with other sources Transaction fees Sell digital content through subscription. (e.g., WSJ online, Economist Intelligence Wire) A Different Approach to Location Retailing In 1886, a jeweler unhappy with a shipment of watches refuses to accept them A local telegraphy operator bought the unwanted shipment Used the telegraph to sell all the watches to fellow operators and railroad employees Becomes so successful that he quits his job and started his own enterprise, specializing in catalog sales Name: Richards Sears of Sears Roebuck E-Commerce Retail Sales Billionsof Dollars Estimated Quarterly U.S. Retail E-Commerce Sales 4th Quarter 1999 - 4th Quarter 2000 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

1 0 Worldwide B2C E-commerce Revenues 2000-2004 (in billions) 8.686 6.393 5.198 5.24 5.526 $428.1 2004 $250.0 2003 2002 $167.2 2001 2000 4th Q 1999 1st Q 2000 2nd Q 2000 3rd Q 2000 4th Q 2000 $0.0 $101.1 $59.7

$100.0 $200.0 $300.0 Source: eMarketer $400.0 $500.0 Estimated Quarterly U.S. Retail Sales: Total and E-commerce Data in millions of dollars. Not adjusted for seasonal, holiday, and trading-day differences. E-commerce as a Percent Quarter to Quarter Percent Period Retail Sales of Total Sales Change 4Q 1999 1Q 2000 2Q 2000 3Q 2000 4Q 2000 Source: Commerce Dept. Total 821,351

747,934 815,677 812,158 856,234 E-commerce 5,198 5,240 5,526 6,393 8,686 0.63 0.70 0.68 0.79 1.01 Total Sales 8035 -8.9 9.1 -0.4 5.4 E-commerce Sales NA 0.8 5.5 15.7 35.9

The State of B2C E-commerce in the U.S. U.S. consumers remain #1 the wired world as they increase frequency and volume of their online purchases But, the number of Internet purchases by U.S. consumers is second to the U.K. Among U.S. respondents using the Internet, 74% have purchased an item online in last 2 months, and 87% expect to make an online purchase in the next year. US vs. the World Global Annual Online Transactions (Median = 10 transactions) 1-5 32% 41+ 10% 26-40 12% 16-25 15% 6-10 19% 41+ 26-40 16-25

11-15 6-10 1-5 11-15 12% Global Annual Online Expenditures (Median = $460) $4,001+ 9% $1-200 32% $2,001-$4,000 10% $1,001-$2,000 13% $4,001+ $2,001-$4,000 $1,001-$2,000 $501-$1,000 $201-$500 $1-200 $201-$500 20%

$501-$1,000 16% Online buyers in the U.S. spent, on average, $898 last year shopping online. Worldwide: Median online expenditure total was $460. Top Ten U.S. Purchase Categories 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 52% 49% 49% 37% 29% 28% 28% 27% 25% 18% 10% 0% r t " c

s g s s ok duct musi othin ations Toy umer men y aids Othe o B pro d Cl serv ns ertain eaut e o d d c r " e ll ent and b s/r late reco a t e d e r m , e k s

rh Tic ts, s, film healt ute CD c p u rod ideo ces, com p d V ran c an ni g o s r r t fra e c t , e u l s E mp

etic m Co s Co Top 20 Internet Retailers (based on 1999 values) Past-Year Customers Average 12month Spending Company Online Sales to U.S. Consumers 1 eBay $3.5-3.7B 10M 2 A mazon.com 1.7-1.9B

12M 150 3 Dell 1.1-1.3B 600K 2,000 4 buy.com 700-800M 3M 250 5 Egghead.com 500-600M 700K

800 6 Gatew ay 500-600M 350K 1,500 7 Quixtar 400-450M 600K 700 8 275-325M 600K 500 275-325M

3M 100 200-250M 425K 550 200-250M 250K 900 12 uBid Barnes & Noble Cyberian Outpost V alue A merica* MicroWareho use 200-250M 175K

1,200 13 Of f ice Depot 175-200M 250K 750 14 eToys.com 150-175M 1.7M 100 15 150-175M 800K 200 16

Lands' End The Spiegel Group 150-175M 450K 350 17 Fingerhut 150-175M 400K 375 18 CDW 150-175M 200K 800 19 20

JCPenney Gap 150-175M 125-150M 500K 800K 300 175 9 10 11 Source: National Retail Association $350 Open Issues in E-commerce Globalization Contractual and Financial Issues Ownership Privacy and Security Interconnectivity and Interoperability Deployment

Barriers to E-commerce (U.S.): Old retail inconveniences and inefficiencies Barriers 1. Concern that credit card will be stolen 2. Item is still high cost 3. Item is very large 4. Personal sizing, fit are important 5. High shipping costs 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% source: Ernst & Young First-Generation B2C Main Attraction: Lower Retail Prices B2C Pure Plays could eliminate intermediaries, storefront costs, some distribution costs, etc. Archetype: www.amazon.com Basic Problems Encountered Immediately Customer-Acquisition Costs are huge. Service is technically commoditizable, and there are no significant network effects.

Customers switching costs are tiny. (Lock-in to online book-buying is high. Lock-in to Amazon is low. Recall Netscape and IE.) Competition is fierce in almost all segments. Few e-tailers are profitable. Investors have run out of money and patience. Internet Customer Acquisition Costs Customer acquisition cost = total spent on advertising and marketing divided by the total number of new customers obtained Amazon.com $29 DLJ Direct $185 E*Trade $257 Various E-Commerce Sites $34 E-tailing is Difficult in Low-Margin Businesses Toys (e-Toys.com) Typical online order contributes $11 to gross revenues. Warehouse, marketing, website, and other fixed overhead is high. A pure-play e-tailer needs to capture at least 5% of the toy market to reach profitability. Groceries (Webvan.com, Peapod.com) Typical online order contributes $9 to gross revenue (fulfillment costs are very high).

Steady customer orders ~30 times/year. McKinsey/Salomon-Smith-Barneys estimate of the value of one steady customer: ~$900 over 4 years. Current Theories (after first shake-out) High order frequency and large order size are more important than large customer base. E-tailers should strive for average order sizes of >$50 and concentrate on high-margin product categories (>35%). [Traditional grocery margins: 2-3%.] Concentrate on making transactions profitable, not on VC-supported market-share wars. Combine e-tailing with B&M stores. Multi-Channel Retail (B2C w/ B&M) Exploit multiple marketing and distribution channels simultaneously B&M (bricks and mortar) stores: Customers browse on the web before going to the store. Catalog sales, telephone, tv advertising, In 1999, multi-channel retailers (i.e., B&Ms or traditional catalog companies that also sell online) made up 62% of B2C e-commerce. Mostly highmargin sales, e.g., computers, tickets, and financial service. Projected to reach 85% in next 5 years. (Source: Boston Consulting Group) Advantages of Multi-channel Retail

Leverage existing brands. Biggest B&M retailers have huge clout. (Walmarts annual sales are $138B, much more than all e-tailers combined.) Profits from existing channels can subsidize e-tail start-up. No need to quit when VCs lose interest. Use established distribution and fulfillment infrastructure (e.g., LL Bean, Lands End,). Cross-marketing and cross-datamining. E-tailers are Adding Offline Channels Alloy.com sold clothes and accessories, but it became a hit only after its catalog was launched. Drugstore.com once dismissed B&M retailing, but it agreed to sell a 25% stake to Rite-Aid not long after rival Soma.com was bought by CVS. Gateway sells computers through WWW and catalog, but it also has 164 stores across U.S. They carry little stock, but they allow customers to get a feel for the product before ordering it.

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