Arak Vs. Barkan

Arak Vs. Barkan

OVERHEAD REDUCTION TASK FORCE Part II Meeting with Dixon Both pushed upwards to get: A good team design (composition/small size/good skills mix) Commitment of resources Top management support in the form of Dixon launching the task force Both did so successfully in their own way using their own styles Team Launch Both were uncompromising and authoritative about the ends

states to be achieved Both were equally insistent that the group determine the means Both established clear boundaries (e.g.., closing the door, using names, referring to the team as an entity) Both set basic norms of conduct and parameters Although emphasized that the team was responsible to manage itself, there were some definite dos and don'ts (confidentiality, cant terminate the newest employees) Both accomplished these objectives in their own way using very different styles TEAM DESIGN 1. 2. 3. 4.

Supportive Context Clear Direction Authority to manage the workThe Means Enabling Structure (Membership) Small size (max of 6) Skill level Right mix of skills Technical, Problem solving/decision making, Interpersonal

Heterogeneous Team Launch Both were uncompromising and authoritative about the ends states to be achieved Both were equally insistent that the group determine the means Both established clear boundaries (e.g.., closing the door, using names, referring to the team as an entity) Both set basic norms of conduct and parameters Although emphasized that the team was responsible to manage itself, there were some definite dos and don'ts (confidentiality, cant terminate the newest employees) Both accomplished these objectives in their own way using very different styles So what should Larry/Lara try to accomplish in the first meeting?

STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT Forming Let concerns be aired Provide reassurance Nudge the group toward the task Ask for commitment Storming Norming Performing

Adjourning ORTF: LESSONS LEARNED Importance of getting up front conditions right Consider team design issues slides Importance of the initial launch by the person who created the team and doing that launch well regarding: Direction (see means vs. ends slide) Group boundaries Initial behavioral norms ORTF: LESSONS LEARNED Timing is critical Continuities exist in the life of a group Team design and coaching behavior are interdependent Team leaders job

Ensure favorable conditions Upward and lateral influence for effective design Coaching members to take full advantage of the situation Consider timing Coach the group through the stages of group development Maximize process gains and minimize process losses Conflict Management & Negotiation Managing Conflict: Performance High Low

Complacency Managed Conflict Intense Definitions Conflict Interaction of persons who perceive incompatible goals and interference from one another in achieving those goals Negotiation A process in which two or more parties attempt to reach acceptable agreement in a situation

characterized by some level of disagreement. KEY STEPS Analyze Situation Identify your needs ImportanceIs it worth it? Zero-sum Strength of position Future Interactions? Analyze other party(ies)

Real needs, interests Strengths/Weaknesses Their styles/approach Select Appropriate Approach Conflict Style Negotiation (Integrative, Distributive) Styles of Conflict Resolution Aggressive Competition (forcing) Satisfy Self?

(Manager exerting authority) Collaboration (Marriage Counselors/Labor mediation) Compromise (Union-Management) Passive Avoidance Accommodation Uncooperative

Cooperative (Most common approach) (Acquiescent Parent) Satisfy Other? (Cooperativeness) INTEGRATIVE NEGOTIATION Conditions Generally best Win-Win is possible Opponent is willing DISTRIBUTIVE NEGOTIATING

Conditions Zero-sum game Opponent is distributive You have the power Relationship not critical DISTRIBUTIVE STRATEGIES Identify target and resistance points Realistic Goal? Start moderately high/low, make concession, get stingy View initial offers as a starting point

Persuasion Leverage Power: Facts, Experience, position Fairness Emotions Closed Manage Perceptions/Framing DISTRIBUTIVE NEGOTIATION EXPERIENTIALLY Experience #1: Used Car Purchase/Sell Decide on a buyer team and a seller team Read only the situation and your role (2 minutes) Teams strategize and fill in the three blanks at the end of your role (5 minutes) 10 minutes to negotiate Ugli Orange

Decide on a Dr. Jones team and a Dr. Roland team Have a team rep get your briefing sheet 30 minutes to read and negotiate KEY STEPS Analyze Situation Identify your needs ImportanceIs it worth it? Zero-sum Strength of position Future Interactions?

Analyze other party(ies) Real needs, interests Strengths/Weaknesses Their styles/approach Select Appropriate Approach Conflict Style Negotiation (Integrative, Distributive) INTEGRATIVE NEGOTIATION Conditions Generally best Win-Win is possible Opponent is willing

Key? Integrative Strategies? INTEGRATIVE NEGOTIATION Integrative Strategies Openness Trust Flexibility

Begin Positively Focus on the Issue Remain Rational Use objective criteria Styles of Conflict Resolution Aggressive Competition (forcing) Satisfy Self? (Manager exerting authority) Collaboration

(Marriage Counselors/Labor mediation) Compromise (Union-Management) Passive Avoidance Accommodation Uncooperative Cooperative (Most common approach)

(Acquiescent Parent) Satisfy Other? (Cooperativeness) CHOOSING A STYLE Competition (forcing) Time is an important constraint Issue is unpopular/action must be taken Commitment is not critical

Competitive others You have the power Collaboration Too important for compromise Time pressures are minimal All want win-win Communication-based CHOOSING A STYLE Avoidance

Issue is trivial Costs/disruptions outweigh benefits Problem may solve itself Based on personal differences Accommodation Issue is more important to the other party Stockpile Credits Minimize loss Compromise Equal power with exclusive goals Temporary solution to a complex issue

Tight time constraints LEADERSHIP What is Leadership? The ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute to the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members. Robert House (2004) The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. Robbins & Judge (2008) History of Leadership Thought Trait Theories ( -1940s)

Behavioral Theories (1940s-1960s) Contingency/Situational Approaches (1960s- ) Contemporary Transformational Leadership Trait Theories of Leadership "GREAT MAN" Theories Little agreement on leadership traits Traits can be developed/improved In isolation, narrow traits have little utility Trait Theories Today CANOE Dimensions Extroversion relates most strongly to leadership Conscientiousness and openness to experience strongly related to leadership

Charisma Confidence Credibility Integrity Track Record Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence Ability to detect, express, and manage emotion in oneself and others. Self (Personal Competence) Other (Social Competence)

Recognition of emotions Self Awareness Social Awareness (Empathy) Regulation of emotions Self-Management Relationship Management The caring part of empathy, especially for people with whom you work, is what inspires

people to stay with a leader when the going gets rough. The mere fact that someone cares is more often than not rewarded with loyalty. James Champy, Outsmart BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES: OHIO STATE STUDIES LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS: 1. Initiating structure: The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates. 2. Consideration:

The extent to which a leader is likely to build job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates' ideas, and regard for their feelings. Effective leaders achieve both. BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES: MICHIGAN STUDIES LEADERSHIP TYPES: 1. Production Oriented Leaders: Focus on the technical or task aspects of the job See people as a means to goal accomplishment

2. Employee Oriented Leaders: Emphasize interpersonal relations Take a personal interest in subordinate needs Accept individual differences Effectiveness is associated with employee oriented leadership behaviors. Blake/Mouton Leadership Grid Concern for People

High Low 1 9 1,9 Country Club Management 9,9 Team Management Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere & work tempo.

Work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a common stake in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust & respect. 8 7 5,5 Middle of the Road Management 6 Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of

people at a satisfactory level. 5 4 9,1 Authority-Compliance 1,1 Impoverished Management 3 2 1 Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree.

Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership. 2 Low 3 4 5 6

Concern for Production 7 8 High BULLY OR VICTIM? Was Hallums a bully? Or, was he a victim? Why? Have all the contingencies been taken into account? Who were his followers? Does it matter? Was Hallums a good leader or a poor leader? What can we conclude about leadership?

BULLY OR VICTIM? Conclusions There is no one best style of leadership Effective leaders possess and use more than one style of leadership. Effective leaders alter their task and relationship orientation to fit the situation. A small set of employee characteristics and (e.g., ability, experience, need for independence) Environmental factors are relevant contingencies (e.g., task characteristics of autonomy and variety) Consider Leadership that gets results (pp. 82-83) Leadership That Gets Results Coercive In a crisis or genuine emergency

Authoritative Changes require a new vision; Clear direction is needed Not good if followers are more experienced than leader Democratic To build buy-in or consensus; get input from valuable/committed employees Leader is uncertain Pace Setting Get quick results from highly skilled and self motivated professionals

Affiliative Heal rifts in a team or motivate during stressful circumstances Coaching Help an employee improve performance or develop strengths Must want to improve

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