AP Chemistry: post-holiday review

AP Chemistry: post-holiday review

Intermolecular Forces (IMF) Chapter 12 States of Matter The fundamental difference between states of matter is the distance between particles. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. The States of Matter The state a substance is in at a particular

temperature and pressure depends on two antagonistic entities: the kinetic energy of the particles; the strength of the attractions between the particles. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Intermolecular Forces The forces holding solids and liquids together are called intermolecular forces. Intermolecular Forces are the attractions and repulsions between molecules. They are NOT chemical bonds. The intermolecular forces of a substance may exhibit are a function of: 1. charge (ions vs. neutrals) 2. polarity (molecular shape, dipoles) 3. molar mass Covalent Bonding Forces for Comparison of Magnitude 20 to 30 kJ/mol

D(H-Cl) = 432 kJ/mol Intermolecular forces are much weaker than the covalent bonds that make up compounds. Intermolecular Forces They are, however, strong enough to control physical properties such as boiling and melting points, vapor pressures, and viscosities. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Intermolecular Forces

These intermolecular forces as a group are referred to as van der Waals forces. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. IMF (intermolecular forces) Properties of liquids influenced by IMF: Vapor pressure

Boiling point (vaporization) Melting point (fusion) Viscosity Surface tension

Adhesion/cohesion Capillary action Types of IMF: Dipole-dipole Hydrogen London interactions bonding

dispersion forces Others attractive forces: Ion-dipole Ion- ion 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Van der Waals forces: 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Summarizing Intermolecular Forces

Dipole-Dipole Interactions Molecules that have permanent dipoles are attracted to each other. The positive end of one is attracted to the negative end of the other and vice-versa. These

forces are only important when the molecules are close to each other. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Dipole-Dipole Interactions The more polar the molecule, the higher is its boiling point. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Hydrogen Bonding The dipole-dipole interactions experienced when H is bonded to N, O, or F are unusually strong. We call these interactions hydrogen bonds. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen bonding arises in part from the high electronegativity of nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. Also, when hydrogen is bonded to one of those very electronegative elements, the hydrogen nucleus is exposed. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

London Dispersion Forces London dispersion forces, or dispersion forces, are attractions between an instantaneous dipole and an induced dipole. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. London Dispersion Forces These forces are present in all molecules, whether they are polar or nonpolar.

The tendency of an electron cloud to distort in this way is called polarizability. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Factors Affecting London Forces The shape of the molecule affects the strength of dispersion forces: long, skinny molecules (like npentane tend to have stronger dispersion forces

than short, fat ones (like neopentane). This is due to the increased surface area in n-pentane. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Factors Affecting London Forces The strength of dispersion forces tends to increase with increased molecular weight.

Larger atoms have larger electron clouds which are easier to polarize. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Which Have a Greater Effect? Dipole-Dipole Interactions or Dispersion Forces two molecules are of comparable size and shape, dipole-dipole interactions will likely the dominating force.

If one molecule is much larger than another, dispersion forces will likely determine its physical properties. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. If How Do We Explain This? The nonpolar series (SnH4 to CH4) follow

the expected trend. The polar series follows the trend from H2Te through H2S, but water is quite an anomaly. Water (H2O) exhibits Hydrogen bonding, a very strong dipole 2009, Prentice-Hall, dipole interaction.

Inc. Type of IMF? CH4 CH3Cl CH3OH NaSO4 H2 IMF (intermolecular forces) Properties of liquids influenced by IMF: Vapor pressure

Boiling point (vaporization) Melting point (fusion) Viscosity Surface tension

Adhesion/cohesion Capillary action Intermolecular Forces Affect Many Physical Properties The strength of the attractions between particles can greatly affect the properties of

a substance or solution. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Viscosity Resistance of a liquid to flow is called viscosity. It is related to the

ease with which molecules can move past each other. Viscosity increases with stronger intermolecular forces and decreases with higher temperature. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Surface Tension Surface tension results from the net inward force experienced by the molecules on the surface of a liquid. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. States of Matter & Phase Changes

Energy Changes Associated with Changes of State The heat of fusion is the energy required to change a solid at its melting point to a liquid. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Energy Changes Associated with Changes of State The heat of vaporization is defined as the energy required to change a liquid at its boiling point to a gas. 2009, Prentice-Hall,

Inc. Energy Changes Associated with Changes of State The heat added to the system at the melting and boiling points goes into pulling the molecules farther apart from each other. The

temperature of the substance does not rise during a phase change. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Vapor Pressure The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure.

The normal boiling point is the temperature at which its vapor pressure is 760 torr (1 atm). 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Phase Diagrams Phase diagrams display the state of a substance at various pressures and temperatures and the places where equilibria exist between phases. 2009, Prentice-Hall,

Inc. Phase Diagram of Water Note the high critical temperature and critical pressure. These are due to the strong van der Waals forces (H-bonding) between water molecules.

2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Phase Diagram of Water The slope of the solidliquid line is negative. This means that as the pressure is increased at a temperature just below the melting point, water goes from a solid to a liquid.

2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide cannot exist in the liquid state at pressures below 5.11 atm; CO2 sublimes at normal pressures. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Properties of Solids chapter 13 Properties of Solids: Pure Solid Crystallin e Atomic Metallic Ionic Network solid

Amorphous Molecular Properties of solids Type Ionic Metallic Molecular Network Amorphous

Example Structural unit NaCl, K2SO4 (+)/(-) ions Fe, Ag, Cu Metal atoms [(+) ions surrounded by delocalized electrons.]

H2, O2, CH4 Molecules Graphite, diamond (C), Quartz, etc. (Si) Atoms with infinite 2 or 3-D network Glass, polyethlene

(plastics) Covalently bonded network with no crystalline structure Forces Properties Electrostatic attraction Hard, brittle,

high melting pt. Electrostatic attraction Malleable, ductile, conductive, range of MP & BP van der Waals forces Low/mod. Melting points,

poor conductors (dispersion, dipoloe-dipole, Hbond) Covalentdirectional electron pair bonds Wide range of hardness & MP. Poor conductors of electricity (with some exceptions) Covalentdirectional

electron pair bonds Noncrystalline wide range mp. Poor conductors. Identify the type of solid for each of the following substances: C

CO2 P4 CH3OH Mo

NH4Cl Li2O H2S Answers: C atomic, covalent network

CO2 molecular (London dispersion) P4 - molecular CH3OH molecular (H-Bonding) Mo atomic, metallic

NH4Cl - ionic Li2O - ionic H2S molecular (dipole-dipole) Unit Cell: the smallest repeating unit of a solid. Arrangement lattice:

(repeating pattern) Simple cube Body centered cube Face centered cube of crystal

Determining the number of atoms/unit cell= # atoms total within cell + # atoms in the face of cell + # atoms on the end of cell + 1/8 # of atoms at the corners of the unit cell. Cubic Unit Cells There are 7 basic crystal systems, but we will only be concerned with CUBIC form here. All sides equal length 1/8 of each atom on a

corner is within the cube 1/2 of each atom on a All angles face is within the cube are 90 degrees 1/4 of each atom on a side is within the cube Fig. 13-3bc, p. 585 Simple Cube: # atoms = 8 x 1/8 atom of corner = 1 atom Body Center Cubic Cell

# atoms = 1 center + 8 x 1/8 corner = 2 atoms Face-centered Cubic Cell # atoms = 6 x face + 8 x 1/8 corner = 4 atoms Space filled facecentered cubic cell: Metallic Bonds Metallic bonding is the force of attraction between valence electrons and the metal ions. Metal Alloys

Brass: substitutional alloy of copper and zinc. Bronze: substitutional alloy of copper and tin. Steel: interstitial alloy of iron and carbon atoms Network solids: A network solid or covalent network solid is a chemical compound (or element) in which the atoms are bonded by covalent bonds in a continuous network extending throughout the

material. In a network solid there are no individual molecules, and the entire crystal may be considered a macromolecule. Ionic compounds and Lattice energy Ionic compounds are typically hard, crystalline solids with high melting points due to the organized arrangement of ions in a crystal lattice. Lattice energy describes the energy of formation of one mole of a solid crystalline ionic compounds when ions in the gas

phase combine. ex. Na+(g) + Cl-(g) NaCl(s) Remember: HHf = Na(s) + Cl2(g) NaCl(s) Born-Haber cycle- applies Hesss law to the calculation of lattice energy. Born-Haber cycle Enthalpy calculation for ionic compound Born-Haber cycle for NaCl Enthalpy considerations for the

formation of NaCl(s)

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