Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS)

Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS)

Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Anticardiolipin Syndrome (ACL) Robert I. Fox, MD., Ph.D. Scripps Memorial Hospital and Research Institute La Jolla, CA [email protected]

Learning Objectives Define Research Diagnostic Criteria for APS List treatment for APS during pregnancy and after pregnancy List Treatment for catastrophic cardiolipin syndrome Anti-phospholipid Syndrome (APS) Also known as Hughs Syndrome, after

Graham Hughes (a rheumatogist in London) Although I want to acknowledge Dr. Munther Khamashta For his outstanding contribution Anti-phospholipid syndrome also known as: Autoimmune hypercoagulable state Caused by anti-phospholipid antibodies

(particularly IgG anti-B2 glycoprotein I) Provokes blood clots in both arteries and veins APS Pregnancy related complications

Miscarriage Stillbirth Fetal growth and Pre-term delivery Placental development Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia Anti-Cardiolipin Antibodies (ACA) Cardiolipin is an important component of the

inner mitochondrial membrane (almost 20% of mitochondrial lipids), Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are antibodies often found in several diseases, including syphilis, SLE, Behcets, TBC False positive RPR suggests ACA In clinical use, terms APS and ACL interchangeable Lupus Anticoagulant Studies

A positive test for LA is a clotting assay (LA test) that demonstrates effects of these antibodies on the phospholipid-dependent factors in the coagulation cascade. The most common screening tests employed as the first step of a LA test are the aPTT, and the dilute Russell viper venom time (dRVVT)..

Cautions A simple confirmatory step that is cost effective is a 1:1 mixing studies This will rule out prolonged PT or PTT due to clotting factor deficiencies A prolonged screening test alone is not adequate for LA positivityesp. now patients are taking Factor X inhibitors (enoxyparin)

If there is an APL antibodyremember Coagulation more common when associated with other coagulopathies (Factor V-L, or Factor II mutations), hyper-homocysteine, associated SLE, or metabolic factors such as hypertension or diabetes

Take home lesson-1 1. Although called anti-cardiolipin (ACL) or anti-phospholipid (APS) syndrome, the highest risk for thrombosis is associated with lupus anti-coagulant (LA) 2. IgG APL are much higher risk factors than IgA or IgM ACL antibodies Take home lesson-2

Catastrophic APS Although rare (less than 1% of APS), the most devastating manifestation is catastrophic anticardiolipin syndrome (multi-organ thrombosis) The patient may thrombose their adrenal glands and go into Addisonian crisisso don-t forget the steroids Remember Most commonly associated with lupus anticoagulant in addition to APS and with other

coagulation risk factors 50% patients without prior thrombosis Registry for catastrophic ACL www.med.ub.es/MIMMUN/FORUM/CAPS.HTM Take home lesson-3 In pregnancy, low molecular weight heparin has slightly better efficacy the than low dose aspirin

Do not forget that patients can get eclampsia so work with a high risk obstetrician with experience If you don-t have one at your center, FIND one at another center and get their phone number (preferable their cell) Also remember Coumadin is teratogenicso not in pregnancy

In non-pregnant APS, coumadin with INR-2.5 to 3 In catastrophic APS, high dose steroids and plasma exchange The Journals are Confusing Just to be aware of some controversies This is the update portion of the talk Even the experts argue about the new few

slides In practice these issues are not important But if you are doing research protocolshere goes. Research Criteria Originally referred to in 1999 as the Sapporo criteria, Subsequently modified at a workshop

conducted in Sydney in 2006 (The next slide shows your first learning objective) According to the revised Sapporo criteria, definite APS is considered if at least one of the following clinical criteria The presence of either vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity, defined as follows:

1. Vascular thrombosis is defined as one or more episodes of venous, arterial, or small vessel thrombosis, with unequivocal imaging or histologic evidence of thrombosis in any tissue or organ. Superficial venous thrombosis does not satisfy the criteria for thrombosis for APS. 2. Pregnancy morbidity is defined as otherwise unexplained fetal death at 10 weeks gestation of a morphologically normal fetus, or one or more premature births before 34 weeks of gestation because of eclampsia, preeclampsia, or placental insufficiency, 3. Three or more embryonic (<10 weeks gestation) pregnancy losses unexplained by maternal or paternal chromosomal abnormalities or by maternal anatomic or

hormonal causes. Limitations of the revised 2006 Sapporo classification criteria for APS diagnosis Some patients who appear clinically to have the APS may not meet the modified criteria, although these criteria help define a homogeneous population for research studies.

Retrospective analysis of 200 aPL-positive patients who met the 1999 Sapporo criteria, only 59 percent met the 2006 revised criteria. Diagnosis in patients not meeting criteria Ongoing and cautious clinical and laboratory Reassessment is required in individuals who do not meet 2006 diagnostic criteria for APS Particular attention if associated clinical

findings (next slide) are present clinical findings associated with aPL include Non-criteria laboratory findings that may be associated with APS include: Livedo reticularis Thrombocytopenia Nephropathy

Neurological manifestations (stroke, fuzzy brain) Pathogenesis Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease, in which "antiphospholi pid antibodies" (anticardiolipin antibodies and /or lupus anticoagulant) react against proteins that bind to anionic

phospholipids on plasma membranes. IgG antibodies more pathogenetic than IgM or IgA. Higher titer is important risk factor Phospholipid Phospholipid Structure Cardiolipin

(in mitochondrial membrane) Lupus Anticoagulants-directed against components of coagulation cascade Antibodies to any of these antigens activate coagulation pathways lead to thrombosis Small vessel thrombosis (kidney)

Clinical Presentations There are no pathognomonic physical findings of APS; however, look for: Ischemia livedo reticularis (and particularly livedo racemosa) digital ischemia or gangrene, deep venous thrombosis, neurological lesions consistent with a stroke

Livido Reticularis Arterial Thrombosis Hand Arterial Thrombosis Foot Central retinal vein thrombosis in 15 yr SLE patient with massive left hemorrhage

Diagnostic Evaluation-1 History to look for One or more specific adverse outcomes related to pregnancy Criteria for SLE or Sjogrens Detailed Obstetric History Post operative thromboses

Initial laboratory testing (Be cost effective) IgG and IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgG and IgM anti-beta2-glycoprotein (GP) I antibodies by ELISA. Lupus Anticoagulant testing (dilute Russell viper venom time [dRVVT] and activated partial thromboplastin

Confirmation by by the 1:1 mixing study Additional laboratory testing Confirmatory aPL testing In patients with initial positive testing for aPL: the test should be repeated after at least 12 weeks to confirm persistence of the aCL, antibeta2-GPI, or LA testConfirmatory testing is required to satisfy the laboratory criteria for APS.

Follow-up Lab Evaluation-1 If patient continues to have otherwise unexplained thrombocytopenia or prolongation of a test of blood coagulation (eg, activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT] Follow up Lab Testing-2 Lots of discussion about expensive lab tests

About half the experts prefer to perform testing for anti-beta2-GP1 antibodies We only only get these expensive tests in patients clinically suspected of APS in whom the IgG and IgM aCL and lupus anticoagulant (LA) testing are negative. CAUTION: Transiently elevated levels of IgG or IgM aCL, can occur in otherwise normal individuals

Usually in the setting of viral or other infections. In one study of 522 randomly selected normal blood donors, the prevalence of IgG and IgM aCL on a first test was 6.5 and 9.4 percent, respectively. However, repeatedly positive tests, were present in only 22 and 14 percent of those with an initial positive test (ie, 1.4 and 1.3 percent of

the total population) after nine months Our general approach: In patients with a strongly suggestive clinical history If initial test result are positive but whose second test is negative: perform a third test after several weeks and use the third result to help guide decision

making. Testing should be repeated if the patient has a clinical event. Catastrophic APS A very small subset (1-2%) of patients with APS has widespread thrombotic disease with multiorgan failure, termed "catastrophic APS Three or more new organ thromboses within a

week Biopsy confirmation of a micro-thrombus Exclusion of other causes of multiple organ thromboses or microthromboses* * algorithm listed in appendix Clinical manifestations of Catastrophic APS also known as Ashersons syndrome or CAPS

Peripheral thrombosis may be encountered affecting veins and arteries. Intraabdominal thrombosis may lead to pain. Cardiovascular, nervous, heart, renal and pulmonary system complications are common. Other signs of CAPS The patient may exhibit skin purpura and necrosis.

Cerebral manifestations may lead to encephalopathy and seizures. Myocardial infarctions may occur. Strokes may occur due to the arterial clotting involvement. Adrenal involvement may lead to Addisonian crisis Catastrophic APS-2

Almost half of the patients who develop catastrophic APS have not had a prior history of Thrombosis. Thus, a high level of suspicion and testing for aPL are necessary in these clinical settings. algorithms help to distinguish these conditions. Treatment of CAPS

in our clinic Specific therapy includes the use of intravenous heparin and corticosteroids . Additional steps may have to be taken to manage circulatory problems, renal failure, adrenal failure and respiratory distress.

Additional Steps intravenous immunoglobulin is expensive and a bit controversialbut sometimes you are desperate plasmapheresis and plasma exchanges again controversial, expensive and you need to have a really good renal group to handle these patients

Differential Diagnosis The differential diagnosis of the APS is broad and includes venous or arterial thrombotic events or pregnancy morbidity due to other causes: Abnormal lab tests due to drugs infections ranging from henloch schoenline purpura (HSP) to viral hemorraghic fever

Additionally, aPL may coexist with other conditions including clotting factor deficiency (i.e., the APL is just a red herring that distracts you from the real process) Differential of Arterial thrombosis Heparin induced thrombocytopenia Defective clot lysis due to dysfibrinogenemia or plasminogen activator deficiency

Homocysteinemia Myeloproliferative disorders, polycythemia vera (P vera), or paroxysmal nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Hyperviscosity due to P vera, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, sickle cell disease Systemic vasculitis, such as those associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies Paradoxical embolism

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Venous thrombosis In patients with venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolic disease Factor Deficiencies (V-Leyden, Factor II, Protein C/S) These conditions can be distinguished from aPL by the lack of initial positive testing for aPL or failure to confirm positive APS results after 12 weeks. Differential of Thrombotic Angiopathies*

TTP-deficiency of Adam13 HUS- reaction to shigella toxin or E. coli HELLP syndrome (of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets with pregnancy) Sepsis with multiorgan failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) * listed in appendix Treatment APS-1

In pregnancy, low molecular weight heparin and low-dose aspirin are used instead of warfarin because of warfarin's teratogenicity. Women with recurrent miscarriage are often a dvised to take aspirin and to start low molecular weight heparin treatment after missing a

menstrual cycle. Treatment of APS-2 In patients with recurrent DVT, prophylactic tr eatment with coumadin is to maintain the pati ent's INR between 2.0 and 3.0. Duration of coumadin is usually 6-12 months if single uncomplicated DVT

If associated pulmonary emboli, then usually maintain anti-coagulation for life Treatment of APS-3 Anticoagulation appears to prevent miscarriage in pregnant women. In pregnancy, low molecular weight heparin and low-dose aspirin are used instead of warfarin because of

warfarin's teratogenicity. Women with recurrent miscarriage are often ad vised to take aspirin and to start low molecular weight heparin treatment after missing a Treatment APS-4 In refractory cases of pregnancy related effect

s (eclampsia, thrombocytopenia) high dose ste roids and plasmapheresis may be used Rituximab (anti-CD20) and APS Refractory APS or catastrophic ACS patients have received steroids plus rituximab (1000 mg IV) and have normalized bleeding and thrombosis, as well as APS antibody titers*

Double blind studies have not been reported Lupus October, 2011 20(10):1106-1108 Lupus July 2013 22: 865-867 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Clinical suspicion for the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) should be raised in the following Occurrence of one or more otherwise unexplained thrombotic or thromboembolic events

One or more specific adverse outcomes related to pregnancy Most of us will see Otherwise unexplained thrombocytopenia or prolongation of a test of blood coagulation (eg, prothrombin time [PT] or activated partial thromboplastin time or [aPTT]) As the TV hero (Dr. Who) says Steady and

Calmly Move ForwardDo not panic Learning Objective-1 Define Research Diagnostic Criteria for APS 1. Vascular thrombosis is defined as one or more episodes of venous, arterial, or small vessel thrombosis, with unequivocal imaging or histologic evidence of thrombosis in any tissue or organ. Superficial venous thrombosis does not satisfy the criteria for thrombosis for APS.

2. Pregnancy morbidity is defined as otherwise unexplained fetal death at 10 weeks gestation of a morphologically normal fetus, or one or more premature births before 34 weeks of gestation because of eclampsia, preeclampsia, or placental insufficiency, 3. Three or more embryonic (<10 weeks gestation) pregnancy losses unexplained by maternal or paternal chromosomal abnormalities or by maternal anatomic or hormonal causes Summary (learning objective 1) Sapporo Criteria

1. Vascular thrombosis is defined as one or more episodes of venous, arterial, or small vessel thrombosis, with unequivocal imaging or histologic evidence of thrombosis in any tissue or organ. Superficial venous thrombosis does not satisfy the criteria for thrombosis for APS. 2. Pregnancy morbidity is defined as otherwise unexplained fetal death at 10 weeks gestation of a morphologically normal fetus, or one or more premature births before 34 weeks of gestation because of eclampsia, preeclampsia, or placental insufficiency, 3. Three or more embryonic (<10 weeks gestation) pregnancy losses unexplained by maternal or paternal chromosomal abnormalities or by maternal anatomic or

hormonal causes. Sunset in San Diego at the Research Institute (at summer solstice) Thank you for inviting me References-1 Pengo V, Tripodi A, Reber G, et al. Update of the guidelines for lupus anticoagulant

detection. Standardisation Committee of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7:1737. Pierangeli SS, de Groot PG, Dlott J, et al. 'Criteria' aPL tests: report of a task force. Lupus 2011; 20:182. Refs-2 Vila P, Hernndez MC, Lpez-Fernndez MF,

Batlle J. Prevalence, follow-up and clinical significance of the anticardiolipin antibodies in normal subjects. Thromb Haemost 1994;72:209. Kaul M, Erkan D, Sammaritano L, Lockshin MD. Assessment of the 2006 revised antiphospholipid syndrome classification criteria. Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66:927

TTP-thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura rare disorder of the blood-coagulation system, causing extensive mic roscopic clots to form in the small blood vessels throughout the body Most cases of TTP arise from inhibition of the enzyme ADAMTS13, a metalloprotease responsible for cl

eaving large multimers of von Willebrand factor (vWF) into smaller units. T Before Treatment, Remember to Check Hemolytic-uremic syndrome is a disease characterized by hemolytic anemia acute kidney failure (uremia) a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). It

predominantly, but not exclusively, affects children. Most cases are preced ed by an episode of infectious, sometimes bloody, diarrhea acquired as a foodborne illness or from a contaminated water supply and caused by E. coli O157:H7, although Shigella, Campylobacter and a variety of viruses have also been implicated. It is now the most common cause of acquired acute renal failure in childhood

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) or Moschcowitz syndrome rare disorder of the blood-coagulation system, causing extensive microscopic clots to form in the small blood ve ssels throughout the body Most often due to low level of ADAM 13, a metalloprotease responsible for cleaving large multimers of

von Willebrand factor (vWF) into smaller units Remember to rule out TTS Presents with anemia, low platelets and thrombosis Remember to check blood smear for microangiopathic changes Red blood cells passing the microscopic clots are subjected to shear stress which damages their membranes, leadin

g to intravascular hemolysis, which in turn leads to anaemia and schistocyte formation. Reduced blood flow due to thrombosis and cellular injury results in end organ damage. TTP Treatment 3 Immunosuppressants, such as glucocorticoids, rituximab,

cyclophosphamide, vincristine, or cyclosporine, may also be used if a relapse or r ecurrence follows plasma exchange

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