Amphibians / Reptiles

Amphibians / Reptiles

Arthropods and Echinoderms Crustaceans Bilateral Symmetry Predators and/or scavengers

Crabs, Shrimp External Sexual Reproduction Exoskeleton Chelicerata (Spiders)

Bilateral Symmetry Predators (external digestion) External sexual reproduction

Tarantula, Black Widow, Garden Spider Create webs for trapping prey (silk is stronger than steel) Insects Bilateral symmetry

Predators, scavengers, some herbivores Ants, Beetles, Flys External Sexual Reproduction

Largest group of animals in the world Some communication with pheromones Echinoderms

Radial Symmetry Predators Starfish, Sand Dollar External sexual reproduction

Eat by releasing stomach through oral opening Echinoderms

Name means spiny skin Carnivorous Reproduce sexually, although they can regenerate if they are split. Move via hydrostatic skeleton Echinoderm examples

Starfish Have tube feet Eat by projecting their stomach onto prey Sand Dollar Sea Cucumber Phylum Mollusca

Many different organisms Some are carnivores (octopus and squid) other are herbivores (snail) some filter feeders (bivalves) Types of molluscs

Cephalopods Means head foot Octopus, squid, and nautilus Gastropods Means stomach foot Snails and slugs Bivalves

Two shells Clams, mussels, oysters Arthropods

Means jointed legs Bilateral symmetry Most numerous of all phyla Open circulatory system washes hemolymph over organs Egg layers Exoskeleton

Many have developed social structures Examples of arthropods Crustaceans crabs, shrimp, lobster, crayfish Insects bees,

beetles, ants Arachnids spiders, scorpions, ticks Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms and Roundworms Porifera (Sponges

Asymmetrical Porous Filter Feeders (specialized feeding cells) Sea Sponges

Can reproduce asexually or sexually Cnidarians All exhibit radial symmetry

Jellyfish, Coral, and Anemones Eat by stunning prey with cnidocysts Reproduce externally (sexual) Jellyfish

Start as polyp Medusa= head Tentacles=legs

Box Jelly = most toxic animal in the world Coral And Anemones Both sedentary coral rock is actually produced to protect animal

Anemone and Clownfish have symbiotic relationship Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) Bilateral Symmetry (considered most advanced)

Eat through oral opening (often parasites) Reproduce Sexually Tapeworms, Planaria

Can regenerate parts Tapeworms Intestinal parasite Passed by ingesting contaminated products

Can be very long Leads to malnutrition Nematoda (Roundworms) Bilateral Symmetry

Eat through oral opening Reproduce sexually Roundworms and Hookworms Mollusca

Different types of symmetry Some are filter feeders, some eat through oral opening Sexual Repro. Snails, Octopus, Bivalves (shellfish)

Annelida (Segmented worms) Bilateral Symmetry Eat through oral opening Reproduce Sexually

Earthworms and Leeches First organisms with closed circulatory system 3 main types of worms Nematoda round

worms Platyhelminthes flat worms Annelida segmented worms Nematodes

Can be from microscopic to 1 meter in length Some are free-living, while others are parasitic Have a body cavity with two openings (mouth

and anus) Nematode functions Reproduce sexually Predatory eaters Exchange occurs through body walls Simple nervous

system Examples of Nematodes Filarial worms cause elaphantiasis Trichinosis-causing worms found in mammals (mainly pigs and humans)

Ascarid worms in digestive tract, can cause malnutrition Platyhelminthes

Either predatory carnivores or detritivores Diffusion of gases and wastes occurs across skin Simple nervous system Hermaphroditicreproduce sexually Examples of Flatworms

Turbellarians mostly marine Flukes- parasitic; infect internal organs of host Tapeworms- draw nutrition from

digestive tract of host Annelids

Segmented worms Feeding ranges from filter feeders to predators Many feed on decaying soil Closed circulatory system Breathe through gills (marine) or through their skin (terrestrial) Many are hermaphroditic; and

most reproduce sexually Examples of Annelids Leeches parasite; feeds off of blood of host Earthworms feed on organic matter in soil

Earthworm dissection 1. Mouth 2. Pharygeal region 3. Seminal

Recepticle 4. Seminal vesicle 5. Crop 6. Gizzard

7. Septum 8. Intestine Fish Classifications of Fish

Broken down into two main classes Chondrichthye cartilagenous fish Ostiechthyes bony fish

Chondrichthyes Primarily cartilagenous skeletons Sharks skates and

rays Lack calcified skeletons Lack swim bladders Sharks Mainly scavengers Eat injured fish, waste from ships, and animals such as seals, turtles,

whale scrabs and fish Some interesting sharks 1) Whale shark largest of all sharks (and worlds largest fish) 2)

Cookiecutter shark smallest of the sharks 3) Bull shark considered one of the most dangerous to humans; can survive for long time in fresh water Adaptations of Sharks

Ampullae of Lorenzini nodes in shark which detect electrical fields Teeth specially designed teeth replace themselves as they are lost

Osteichthyes Bony fishes Swim bladder helps them maintain buoyancy in the water Lateral line serves as sensory receptor for

detecting prey/predators Adaptations of Bony Fish Operculummovable part over gills allows them to breathe without swimming Scales

Calcified vertbrae Defense in bony fish Spines Catfish Toxins lion fish, Blowfish

Schooling habits herring Teeth - barracuda Vertebrates Essential question How are these animals equipped to survive on land? What are some problems animals might encounter if

they live on land? Drying out Temperature variations Movement / Mobility Amphibians / Reptiles Amphibians Amphibia double life

Part of life is in water; part is on land All undergo metamorphosis Eggs are laid in water Tadpoles aquatic stage Grow into adults develop heart, lungs, legs

Other characteristics Moist skin Ectotherms More energy required why? Examples of amphibians Frogs / toads (Order Anura) Examples of amphibians Salamanders (Order Urodela)

Examples of amphibians Caecilians (no tail) Order Apoda http://www.noahsarkzoofarm.co.uk/research/img/pictures/ caec_1.jpg Reptiles Characteristics of Reptiles

Scaly skin Lungs Legs underneath their body Reproduce on land Ectothermic More about reptiles

Amniotic egg Doesnt need water Provides nourishment & protection http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/campbl34_files/ image037.gif How they eat

Most eat plants & insects Predators http://museum.nhm.uga.edu/gawildlife/pub/herpphotos/ snkefrog.jpg Examples of Reptiles Turtles Examples of Reptiles

Crocodiles / Alligators Examples of Reptiles Lizards Examples of Reptiles Snakes Examples of Reptiles Dinosaurs Birds (class aves)

Usually eats insects or seeds/berries Raptors (birds of prey) are predatory hunters Hollow bone structure

allows for less weight for flight Endotherms Feathers are thought to be evolved from reptiles Beak structure As Darwin noted, beak structure determined by diet

Reproduction Internal Hard shelled egg protects and nourishes embryo Mammals General Characteristics Hair Warm-blooded (endotherms) Mammary glands

produce milk (fat & protein) http://eprentice.sdsu.edu/J03CR/mfalcon/mammals/seal.jpg 3 groups of mammals Monotremes Marsupials Placentals Monotremes Lay eggs Lack

nipples Lack teeth http://www.talune.com.au/photos/images/echidna.jpg Examples of monotremes Duck-billed platypus Spiny anteater http://www.tip.csiro.au/dicta2003/images/platypus.jpg http://www.nature.com/news/2004/041025/images/platypus.jpg Marsupials

Babies born prematurely Body develops in a pouch Mainly in Australia why? Due to continental drift http://www.kiwirecovery.org.nz/NR/rdonlyres/9984F916-8ACE-49B7-A5BF-D130CCC3BF5B/0/gondwana2.jpg Examples of Marsupials

Kangaroo Koala bear Possum Tasmanian devil http://babs.com.au/cradlechalet/ devil.jpg

http://www.opossumsocietyus.org/opossumphotos/11.jp http://dnr.wi.gov/org/caer/ce/eek/critter/mammal/images/opossum.jpg http://www.angelfire.com/folk/tales6/images/koala.jpg Placentals Babies develop in uterus Placenta provides nourishment http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/md131/babies/delivery/placenta.jpg http://www.exn.ca/news/images/1999/11/02/19991102-lionbaby.jpg

Examples of placentals Humans Rabbits Horses Cows Gerbil http://www.uvm.edu/~ashawley/evolve/images/babychimp.jpg

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