الرى بالتنقيط

الرى بالتنقيط

Drip Irrigation -1 .

-2 . -3 . -4 . -5 . -6 . -7 -8 ( ) . -9 . -10 )( ()

%50 . -11 . . . .. -12 . . -13 .. -14 . -15 . ( . ).

-16 . -1 . -2 -3. . -4 .

-5 ( ) . . . . -6 . -7 . -8 .

-9 . Trickle irrigation system Components are: 1- Pump unit. 2- Control head. 3- Main lines, submain lines, and Laterals. 4-Emitters or Drippers . Takes water from the source and provides the right pressure for delivery into the pipe system. Consists of valves to control the discharge and pressure in the entire system. It may also have filters to clear the water. Supply water from the

control head into the fields. Made from PVC. used to control the discharge of water from the lateral to the plants. They are usually spaced more than 1 meter apart with one or more emitters used for a single plant such as a tree. For row crops more closely spaced emitters may be used (Surface drip -1 )Irrigation -2 ) (Subsurface drip Irrigation -3 ( ) -4

()Surface drip Irrigation -1 . -2 . . ()Subsurface drip Irrigation -1

. -2 . . . -3 . -4 . . . -5

. -6 . ) ( -1

. -2 10 . -3 . ( . ) (pressure . )compensating valve -4 . . -7 .

. . . -8 .

-9 . . . -10 . . -1 . .

-2 . -3 . -4 . -5 . . Drip irrigation is most suitable for row

crops )vegetables, soft fruit(, tree and vine crops where one or more emitters can be provided for each plant. Drip irrigation is adaptable to any farmable slope. Normally the crop would be planted along contour lines and the water supply pipes )laterals( would be laid along the contour also. Crops Slops Drip irrigation is suitable for most soils. On clay soils water must be applied slowly to avoid runoff. On sandy soils higher emitter discharge rates will be needed to ensure adequate lateral wetting of the soil. Soil One of the main problems with drip irrigation is blockage of the emitters. All emitters have very small waterways ranging from 0.2-2.0 mm in diameter and these can become blocked if the water is not clean. Thus it is essential for irrigation water to be

free of sediments. If this is not so then filtration of the irrigation water will be needed. Irrigation Water Emitters -1 . -2 . ( 10-1 /) . -3 . -1 )(pressure compensating emitters -1

. . -2 . -2 : -1

. -2 . -3 . . -3 :

-1 . -2 . -3 . : . -1 In line emitters -2 On line, Plug-in emitters

-3 On line riser emitters -1 In line emitters -2 On line, Plug-in emitters -3 On line riser emitters lateral lines

** 32-8 14 . ** PVC ** : -1 . -2 . ** . Filters **

. ** : -1 screens centrifugal -2 separator -3 sand filters Fertilizer Application ** . ** .

. ** %80-70 ** . . .

** : V=W*A/C : ) V: ( W: ) / ( )A: ( ** :

-1 . -2 . -3 . -4 . -5 . Depth of Application ** . ** fc Wp s

: P d Y D 100 w : wn dwn:

fc: ( . ) ( Wp: . ) D: s: w:

P: Gross irrigation depth dg ** dwn : E a d d

wn K1 K 2 wn Ea dg : K1:0,95 = =K2:0,9 **

. ** . ** . ..

** ** As q : As=q/I : I: ** R : R=[q/)*I(]0.5 **

** . **

. ** . Single straight lateral ** . ** .

. ** SL P ()C,M,F . Se ** Effective Emission point discharge spacing <1.5 L/hr 2 L/hr

4 L/hr 8 L/hr >12 L/hr between Recommended spacing of mission points along the lateral for coarse, medium, and fine laterals (SL) textured soils, Se (m and ft) C M 0.2 0.5 (0.7) (1.7) F C 0.9 (3) 0.3 (1) M F 0.7

1 (2.3) (3.3) C 0.6 (2) M F C M F C M F 1 1.3 1 1.3 1.7 1.3 1.6 2 (3.3) (4.3) (3.3) (4.3) (5.6) (4.3) (5.3) (6.6)

m 0.6 ft 2.6 Percentage of soil wetted(P%) 38 88 100 50 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

100 100 100 100 1 3.3 33 70 100 40 80 100 80 100

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1.2 3.9 25 58 92 33 67 100

67 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1.5 4.9 20 47 73

26 53 80 53 80 100 80 100 100 100 100 100 2 2.5 6.6 8.2

15 12 35 28 55 44 20 16 40 32 60 48 40 32 60 48 80 64 60

48 80 64 100 80 80 64 100 80 100 100 3 3.5 9.8 11.5 10 9 23 20

37 31 13 11 26 23 40 34 26 23 40 34 53 46 40 34 53 46 67 57

53 46 67 57 80 68 4 13.1 8 18 28 10 20 30 20 30

40 30 40 50 40 50 60 4.5 14.8 7 16 24 9 18

26 18 26 35 26 36 44 36 44 53 5 16.4 6 14 22

8 16 24 16 24 32 24 32 40 32 40 48 6 19.7

5 12 18 7 14 20 14 20 27 20 27 34 27 34 40

Example 1 ( ) 4 / . 5. * 4/ Se 1 %33 Double straight lateral P

** . . ** S2 ** S1.

** P 1 S1 P 2 S2 P : S r : S2 :

S1 :

P1: P2: 100 % Example 2 Sr:

8 / Solution 8

/ Se 1.3. S2 P2 %100 1.5. S1 = (3.5 = )Sr-S2. * 46 3 .5 100 * 1.P51 P 62.2%

= 5 More than one emitter ** . . ** . . .

** . ** Se . Sep . S2

** 100 100 * n *.%S ep * S 2 P S * r ** St . . ** : n: . S2 :

%100

. . Sep: S t: S : Example 3

** . 8 / . 5*6. ** 8 / Sep Example 4

** . : 100 * n * S ep * S 2 P S r * St 100 * n *1.5 *1.3 33 5*6 n=5 . 5. %33 Irrigation interval Ii ** : Hi = dwn / Tt ** : Tt :

]Tt = Cu*[minimum of )Ps/85(,1 ** : Ps: Duration of application

** : e S * dg * SL q Ht ** : dg: . . Se:

. SL: Q = )A*q / N* se * sl( Q: the discharge of the pump )m3/sec(, A: area of the field )m2(, q: the discharge of emitter )m3/sec(, N: number of operational units, se: the distance between emitters on laterals )m(, sl: the distance between laterals )m(. N H i / Ht Hi : the time interval between successive irrigations )day(, Hi = dw / Cu two dw : required water depth )mm(, Cu: consumptive use of the crop )mm/day(, Ht: the total time for operating the emitter )day(,

Ht = dg* se * sl / q dg : actual irrigation depth = dw / irrigation efficiency Determine trickle system capacity for an area 125 fed, if a- The system efficiency is 85%, b- the distance between emitters on laterals = 0.6 m, c- the distance between laterals = 1.2 m, d- the discharge of emitter = 2 l/hr, e- required water depth = 2.4 cm, f- consumptive use of the crop = 6 mm/day, Q = )A*q / N* se * sl( Q = )125 * 4200 * 2 * 0.001( / )60 * 60 * N * 0.6 * 1.2( = 0.405 / N N Hi / H t Hi = dw / Cu = 24 / 6 = 4 days Ht = dg* se * sl / q = [)24*10-3/0.85( * 0.6 * 1.2] / )2*0.001( = 10.16 hr = 0.423 days N 4 / 0.423 N 9.45 N = 8 )The emitter can make two movements in the day in one irrigation )4days((;

Q= 0.405/8 = 0.051 m3/sec = 51 l/sec. Example 6 ** 125 . %4 %12

. %33 1 . . / 6 2 / 0,6

** .%67 ** : ) ( Fc Wp B*D d w Y * *z*P 100 w (12 4) 1.5 d w 0.33 * *1* 0.67 0.0266m 26.5mm 100 1 **

: Hi = dw / Cu = 26.5 / 6 = 4.42 days 4 . ** 4 : dw = 6 * 4 = 24mm dg ** dw Ea : dw 24 28.2 mm 0.85

Ea dg ** d g I*t S * 2.82 60 * 120 e * SL 10.15hr : q 2000 It

H * 4 ** 24 i 9.46 N ( Ht 10.15 )N : **

8 (4 )N , 2 . ** N ( ) 3A * d g 125 * 4047 * 0.0282 : Q 0.0488m / sec 48lit / sec N * H t 8 *10.15 * 60 * 60 *2 ** A * d g : 125 * 4047 1000 A q 3 Q * * 0.0488m / sec 48lit / sec N * H t N Se * S L 8 0.6 *1.2

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Health and Safety Updates

    Health and Safety Updates

    ACAS Guidance on Drug and Alcohol Policies . ... Faltec manufactured car parts at its factory in the North East. The factory was located in a well populated urban area. Turnover £33-£39m. Holding Company turnover £550-600m. ... West Palm Beach.
  • Finance for Commissioners 101: What You Need to Know

    Finance for Commissioners 101: What You Need to Know

    High Performer, Standard, Substandard, Troubled, or Capital Fund Troubled. Where do PHAs lose points? Average of PHAS Score: Average of FASS Score; ... If we make a loan in a mixed finance deal, do we know the likelihood we will...
  • Powerpoint template for scientific posters (Swarthmore College)

    Powerpoint template for scientific posters (Swarthmore College)

    The sequences for Cod, Pollock, and McDonalds can be seen in Figure 3. This shows the bases that were different from the top genome. From this the % match was able to be determined. In Figure 3A the match between...
  • Over the Net Violations

    Over the Net Violations

    - The volleyball shall include the NFHS authenticating mark. SECTION 3: The Scoresheet and Scoreboard. Rule 3-3-1: - A scoresheet shall be supplied by the host team and kept at the officials' table from at least 20 minutes before the...
  • POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION READINESS TEST (PERT) Screencast Training 2014-15

    POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION READINESS TEST (PERT) Screencast Training 2014-15

    PERT Updates. PERT is no longer required for placement in Florida Colleges, if a student holds a standard Florida high school diploma. Also applies to active duty members of any branch of the U.S. Armed Service.
  • Presentation Game - Training-Games.com

    Presentation Game - Training-Games.com

    JAMES TAYLOR. MICHAEL JACKSON. WYNONA JUDD. FAMOUS SINGERS. Famous Singers 2/2. Scrambled Egos Rules: Requires 2 slides for each game. Show scrambled words and give player(s) 60 seconds to write down as many unscrambled words as possible. Show next slide...
  • EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK Verbal or nonverbal communication to a

    EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK Verbal or nonverbal communication to a

    Viewgraph #8-2 JOHARI WINDOW MODEL ARENA (A) Things I know Things you know BLIND SPOT (B) Things I do not know about myself. You know FACADE (C) You do not know UNKNOWN (D) Things you do not know and things...
  • Using SchoolNet in the Classroom - Midland Independent School ...

    Using SchoolNet in the Classroom - Midland Independent School ...

    From the Classroom Assessment Monitor, you can drill into student data. Just click on a name. Any baby blue item is clickable. After clicking on (blue) student name, the Student's Profile page will appear. ... Using SchoolNet in the Classroom