Aim: Were there more changes or continuities in East Asia ...
Aim: Were there more changes or continuities in East Asia 1200 1450? Unit 1: The Global Tapestry 1200 1450 Do Now: Chinese Chronology Shang Dynasty 1700 1027 BCE Began by Yellow River, first Chinese Dynasty and earliest Chinese writing on Oracle Bones
Zhou Dynasty 1027 - 221 BCE Began the Mandate of Heaven and the Dynastic Cycle Qin Dynasty 221 BCE 207 BCE Followed the official philosophy of Legalism, began the Great Wall of China Han Dynasty 206 BCE 220 CE Government officials had to pass the Civil Service Exam, official philosophy of Confucianism, trade flourished along the Silk Road, invented paper
Sui Dynasty 580 618 CE Built the Grand Canal Tang Dynasty 618 907 CE Invented gunpowder, the astronomical clock, block printing Song Dynasty 960 1279 CE Invented a vaccination for smallpox, paper money Yuan Dynasty 1279 1368 CE
Controlled by the Mongols, Chinese were treated as 2nd class citizens, trade flourished on the Silk Road Japan Chronology Jomon Culture 4000 BCE Prehistoric, homemade pottery Yayoi Culture 300 BCE More advanced agriculture, used metal and wheel Yamato Clan 250 538 CE
Yamato clan rulers began the Japanese imperial dynasty. Taika Reforms 645 CE Reform based on diffusion from China: Buddhism, writing system, bureaucracy, government Nara Period 710 814 CE 1st permanent capital at Nara; emergence of independent Japanese culture. Beginning of classical period. Heian Period 794 - 1185 New capital of Heian-kyo (Kyoto). Court aristocracy, including women, produced great body of literature.
Kamakura Period 1185 1333 Beginning of military rule, as samurai (warriors) replaced nobles as real rulers of Japan. Imperial court remained in Kyoto but shoguns governing organization based in Kamakura, south of modern Tokyo. I Heian Japan A) 794 CE Kyoto became the new capital of Japan. B) 9th century poets began to write in Japanese instead of in Chinese. C) Lady Murasaki Shikibu wrote The Tale of Genji 1000 CE. *The
worlds 1st known fictional novel! It is about Genji, the son of the Emperor during the Heian period. It describes in detail the differences between the nobles and the commoners. D) The Fujiwara clan dominated in the Heian; influential to the emperor. V Feudal Japan A) By the 9th century CE, the power of the Emperor declined. Feudalism became the dominant form of government in Japan.
Emperor The emperor was a figurehead without real power. Shogun The Shogun was the real ruler of feudal Japan, and head of the military.
Daimyo Lords Samurai Warriors Peasants The Daimyo lords were given land in exchange for loyalty to the Shogun. The Samurai provided military service to the Daimyo Lords in exchange for land or food.
Farmers had a higher social status than merchants. Confucianism had influenced Japan, and believed merchants to be useless as they did not always make the things they sold. Feudal Japan Continued B) The Samurai followed the Code of Bushido Way of the Warrior 1. Honor 2. Bravery
3. Loyalty 4. Simplicity 5. If a Samurai displeased his master or lost a battle, he may practice seppuku (ritual suicide) so he will not lose honor. Samurai Armor Samurai armor incorporated steel, leather, and wood plates,
II Song Dynasty China II Song Dynasty 960 - 1279 A) China entered into a period of disorder after the collapse of the Tang (53 years). The Period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. The Song Dynasty reunited China in 960 AD. Founded by Taizu. B) Merchant class increased. Large merchant ships were sent to India, Arabia and other regions to trade in Chinese silk, tea and other manufactured products. C) Like the Tang, civil service exams were used. 1st Chinese navy!
Song Dynasty Continued D) Invented the worlds first paper currency (money). Paper currency was a by-product of Chinese block-printing. It helped business as it is easier to carry. E) Invented the mechanical clock: used wheels, shafts & pins, turning at a steady rate to tell exact time. Under the Song Dynasty, block printed playing cards became popular!
Song Dynasty continued F) Invented a vaccine for smallpox. Smallpox is an airborne, contagious disease, caused by the variola virus. Symptoms appear 1214 days after infection, and include fever, headache, back pain, abdominal pain and vomiting. After 23 days, the body temperature falls and a rash appears smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980. World Health Organization
G) The Song discovered that champa rice from Vietnam could be harvested 2-3 times a year. It was more drought resistant, so was able to grow on terraced mountains. population and trade increased. III Yuan Dynasty China The Yuan Dynasty (1271 1368) A) Mongols ruled from their capital Dadu (now Beijing) B) Encouraged trade by keeping the Silk Road safe, expanded the Grand Canal, and welcomed
foreign diplomats and merchants (Pax Mongolia) - The most famous visitor to the Khans Court under the Yuan Dynasty was Marco Polo! C) Yuan government discriminated against the native Chinese; only Mongols or foreigners could serve in the government. Unlike Confucianism, the Mongols promoted the role of artists, merchants and traders. They eliminated the civil service exam. D) By the 1350s the White Lotus Society formed, dedicated to overthrowing the Yuan. The Mongols considered the White Lotus society a religious sect and banned it, forcing its members to go underground. E) The White Lotus Society inspired a revolution in 1352 in Guangzhou, led by a Buddhist monk
Zhu Yuanzhang. In 1356, Zhu captured Nanjing and made it his capital. Helped by Confucian scholars who performed rituals in his claim of the Mandate of Heaven, the first step toward establishing new dynastic rule. By 1387, 30+ years of war, Zhu liberated all of China. He took the title Hong-wu and founded a new dynasty; the Ming. The Yuan Dynasty Continued Yuan Porcelain Vase Bailin Temple of
Zhaoxian, 1330 Zhu Yuanzhang IV Ming Dynasty China The Ming Dynasty Continued A) The Ming Dynasty tried to rid China of Mongol influence and return to traditional Chinese culture. Neo-Confucianism was the
dominant philosophy. (Womens role continued to be subservient to her husband, and foot binding remained a practice of the wealthy.) The Civil Service Exam was brought back, and the Great Wall of China was completed. B) Emperor Yongle (ruled 1402 1424) widened the size of the Grand Canal. C) Yongle also built the Forbidden City; his imperial home, in his capital of Beijing. No one could enter or leave the city without his
permission! Ming means brilliant. Above is Emperor Yongle. The Forbidden City 178 acres, 800 buildings, and stables for elephants! It took approximately 1,000,000 laborers to build. Yellow is the predominant color, as it was the color of royalty.
Legend says that it has 9,999 rooms, but there are actually 8,707. The Emperor slept in a different room each night to prevent assassination attempts. Since the Forbidden City is a ceremonial, ritual and living space, the architects who designed its layout II Zheng Hes fleet (1405 - 1433) A) Ming Emperor Yongle desired to send ships to the west of China. Yongle appointed Zheng He, a trusted official, to command these western voyages. B) Zheng He led 7 great expeditions to India,
the Middle East, and even Eastern Africa! Unlike later Western European explorers like Vasco de Gama, Zheng He was NOT exploring the unknown; China ALREADY KNEW about ports in India and East Africa. China also did not desire trade; merchants came to China. So what was the real purpose of Zheng Hes trips? To show off the greatness of China, and to bring back exotic luxuries for the Emperor. Ming Dynasty Continued
We, [Zheng] He and the rest, have been favored with a gracious commission from our Sacred Prince to convey to the distant barbarians the favor [earned by their] respectfulness and good faith. We have beheld in the ocean huge waves like mountains rising in the sky while our sails, loftily unfurled like clouds day and night - Zheng He, 1432 III Why did the Ming stop overseas exploration? A) In 1435 Zheng He died. The new Emperor, Yongles son, Emperor Hongle,
banned any further sea voyages. B) Why did Emperor Hongle ban any further voyages? 1. Being a believer of Confucius, he ranked merchants on the lowest scale of society, arguing that they didnt create anything or advance society forward. 2. As the voyages were not for trade, they cost China more money than they brought in. V Spread of Buddhism in East Asia A) Theraveda B) Mahayana
C) Tibetan VI Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism VI Christianity in China A) When Marco Polo returned to Europe, he reported of Christians in China. The Pope sent a missionary to Beijing in 1294. The Mongols were religiously tolerant and allowed Catholics to build churches. However, the Chinese resented the Mongols, and when they rebelled against the Mongols, they also attacked Christians. During the Ming
Dynasty, most Christians were expelled. B) Towards the end of the Ming Dynasty, Catholics came to China again. During the European Counter-Reformation, Jesuits came as missionaries. By 1615 there were 10,000 Catholic converts in China, which increased even more under the Qing Dynasty (16361911). Matteo Ricci was a Jesuit priest from Italy who, in 1583, started the first Catholic mission in China. Ricci learned Chinese, translated Chinese classic literature into Latin and wrote a series of books about the country. Ricci also translated books by Euclid into Chinese, and those proved to be very popular. Ricci was known for embracing Chinese
ways, often dressing in silk robes and going by the name Li Matou. Matteo Ricci Summary Questions 1. Were there more changes or continuities in Japan 1200 1450? [Political, economic, cultural, social] 2. Were there more changes or continuities in China 1200 1450? [Political, economic, cultural, social]
Key Terms Heian Japan Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty Theraveda Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism Champa rice Grand Canal
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