AIFE, American Institute of Formation Evaluation LLC
Data for over 170,000 Analyzed Drill Stem Tests in the Continental U.S. [email protected] Historical DST Coverage by State Historical drill stem test data has not, for the most part, been available in the United States, as no regulatory authority existed historically to collect this important information. AIFE has invested over $1.0 million to assimilate the raw data file, and over $4.0 million to analyze and computerize this information. [email protected] AIFE Data Sources AIFEs drill stem test (DST) database contains over 170,000 analyzed tests for the United States covering the period 1948 to present. Each analysis is derived from the original drill stem test report, not transcribed from scout or field data. The DST data includes permeability, quality codes, drill collar and drill pipe data, incremental detail, HORNER extrapolated pressures and slopes, PMAX, Detailed blow descriptions, Formation DAMAGE and recoveries. The file was constructed over a 20 year period from the original DST reports at a cost exceeding $5.0 million. Much of this investment was made in the 1980s and would be considerably more expensive to recreate today. The file represents the largest single collection of drill stem test reports available and
surpasses any individual state record compilations. [email protected] AIFE Data Sources The original sources (many of which have sadly been destroyed) for the data file include: The internal records of Amoco Production Co., Arco and the numerous companies they had each acquired over the years. Tests from individual testing companies (including Baker). Petroleum Research Corporation who collected data from 1948 to 1983 (57,000 tests). State records where available. New and old tests in Wyoming on which AIFE was able to locate additional records will be added this year, followed by Montana & North Dakota in 2015. It is arguably the only comprehensive database of historical DST information available in the United States. [email protected] Drill Stem Testing Drill Stem Testing is a basic oilfield evaluation tool. DSTs are essential in determining the disposition of current wells and providing reservoir data which can aid in predicting productivity and appropriate well completion techniques. [email protected] DST Testing The primary objective of Drill Stem Testing is to determine the type and rate of production, formation
characteristics and conditions. Detailed interpretative analyses of drill stem tests provides vital information such as reservoir characteristics, permeability, virgin reservoir pressures and temperatures, reservoir drawdown and hydrocarbon recoveries. The incorporation of such data into an exploration program proves to be invaluable and essential for an overall perception of fluid migration. [email protected] DST Data To the explorationist, evaluation of individual DSTs is important to determine if potential zones were fully evaluated or if by-passed hydrocarbons are present. Virgin reservoir pressures as determined by DSTs can be compared to post- simulation results to determine stimulation effectiveness. The application of DSTs in petroleum hydrodynamics is invaluable in delineating reservoir continuity, fluid gradient analysis, fluid migration pathways and pressure regime interpretation. Applications of DSTs encompasses direct involvement in exploration, exploitation, reservoir engineering, hydrodynamics and drilling analysis. [email protected]
DST Data The best type of DST data available is data taken directly from the original DST report, not transcribed or copied from field reports. Transcribed or field data is often unreliable at best. To have reliable DST data the original DST report should be obtained, the test reviewed for mechanical success and incremental detail on the shut-ins obtained to complete Horner extrapolation(s). This process is lengthy and requires a degree of skill in DST analysis to identify problems which if not recognized can lead to serious errors. [email protected] AIFE Analysis Overview AIFE provides the petroleum industry with over 170,000 DST reports in the United States, and has analyzed over 430,000 DSTs worldwide. Our team of professional analysts transform the raw data into high-grade form by calling upon their experience analyzing tens of thousands of tests. Pressure curves often need to be digitized so that incremental detail is available for performing various reservoir calculations which are a part of the highgrade data set. The DSTs are also coded according to unique time tested quality criteria making it possible to conclude facts about test reliability, reservoir permeability and damage etc., simply by glancing at our reports. [email protected]
AIFE Quality Coding System AIFE's expert personnel have re-evaluated each drill stem test from the source documents according to criteria identified over forty years of experience, providing a newly comprehensive and reliable base for decision making. The following is a brief look at the methods by which this re-evaluation was accomplished. A fully detailed study of how these standards were arrived at is available upon request. These Quality Codes grade drill stem tests according to the following signatures: [email protected] AIFE Quality Codes [email protected] AIFE Quality Codes A Quality Test
1. Test mechanically sound - No Plugging/No Skidding 2. Recorder used-chart good, pressures compare 3. Flow pressures verify recoveries and/or flow rates 4. Bottom packer held on straddle tests 5. Recorder depths given 6. Recorder within interval tested 7. ISI stabilized, or nearing stabilization with increments 8. Preflow time long enough to release hydrostatic head 9. KB elevation given 10. Two good shut-ins required 11. PMAX Range of approximately 1 to 10 Ibs. (7 to 69 kPa) from read shut-in pressure 88. Fluid to surface on flows (irregularities) 99. Flows incremented Note: Quality code information is programmed into the data base, as listed, by both letter and number, e.g. B13, G64. This is done to enhance the reliability of the data base. Should a user wish to investigate any specific coding instance classification details are retrievable. [email protected]
AIFE Quality Codes B Quality Test 12. Slight mechanical difficulties, but does not affect the test 13. Shut-ins not fully stabilized 15. Recorder pressures disagree from 1 to 19 PSI (7 to 131 kPa) after recorder drag and depth difference 17. PMAX range of approximately 20 to 35 Ibs. (138 to 241 kPa) from read shut-in pressure 48. Flow pressures do not verify recoveries 88. Plugging, fluid to surface, resets on flows (irregularities) 99. Flows incremented [email protected] AIFE Quality Codes C Quality Test
18. Some mechanical difficulties evident on chart, however, does not appear to affect pressure data 19. Recorders run above the interval 21. Preflow not opened long enough, possibly slightly supercharged 22. Packer may have leaked slightly 24. Recorder pressures disagree from 20 29 PSI (138 to 200 kPa) after recorder drag and depth difference 25. Only one recorder, must be within interval 26. PMAX range of approximately 30 to 85 lbs.(207 to 586 kPa) from read shut-in pressure 27. Only one good shut-in 88. Plugging, fluid to surface, resets on flows (irregularities) 99. Flows incremented [email protected] AIFE Quality Codes D Quality Test
28. Not totally mechanically sound 29. Only one recorder, run inside above the interval 30. No recorder depth or questionable 31. No KB elevation 33. Questionable interval depths. 34. Supercharged ISI, FSI follows long valve open period 35. No chart from below bottom packer 36. Recorder pressures disagree from 30 PSI (206.8 kPa) and over after recorder drag and depth difference 37. PMAX range of approximately 80 to 150 Ibs. (552 to 1034.2 kPa) from read shut-in pressure 79. Cannot define a valid P-Max (test indicates definite drawdown) P-Max filled with the initial shut-in pressure 88. Plugging, fluid to surface, reset on flows
(irregularities) 99. Flows incremented [email protected] AIFE Quality Codes E Quality Test Low Permeability, Low Pressure 38. Covers all requirements of Code A, however, low permeability and low pressure, unable to extrapolate 39. Low permeability, low pressure, but problems encountered throughout test 46. Low permeability, relatively high pressure for "E" Code 88. Plugging, fluid to surface resets on flows (irregularities) 99. Flows incremented [email protected]
AIFE Quality Codes F Quality Code Low Permeability, High Pressure 40. Covers all requirements of Code A, however, low permeability and high pressure (CAUTION: Watch for Cushion) 41. Low permeability, high pressure. but problems encountered throughout test 47. Low permeability. relatively low pressure for "F" code 88. Plugging, fluid to surface, resets on flows (irregularities) 99. Flows incremented [email protected] AIFE Quality Codes G Quality Code Misrun or Flow Only
42. No shut-ins taken 43. No useable pressures 44. No useable data 45. Flow only 63. Unable to obtain initial packer seat 64. Lost seat after tool opened 65. No elements ruptured 66. Top elements ruptured 67. Bottom elements ruptured 68. Both elements ruptured
69. Plugged tool 70. Unable to reach test depth 71. Tool failure 72. Personnel failure 73. Belly spring turning 74. No reason available 75. Other 76. Mud dropped in annulus when tool opened (seat held) 77. Skidding tools when opening or during flow 90. Front page only, misrun [email protected] AIFE Permeability Ratings From a drill stem test, the average effective permeability can be calculated to reservoir conditions using a set mathematical formula. In a practical sense, one of the required formula parameters, such as viscosity of the fluid, may not always be readily available. Reliable ratings, however, have been qualitatively assigned from the Pressure/Recovery Charts based on the nature of the build-up curves related to flow and pressure data. [email protected] AIFE Permeability Ratings By assigning a numerical value to the Permeability Ratings regional Permeability Maps can be constructed * * e.g. EX 60, HI -50, RH 40, AV 30, RL 20, LO 10, VN - 00
[email protected] AIFE Damage Ratings Perhaps the most valuable determination to be made from test data is in estimating the presence and magnitude of Well Bore Damage. This is particularly true of tests resulting in low fluid recovery. In the absence of recognition of degrees of damage, this has often been read as poor production potential, resulting in the needless abandonment of commercial producers. In the USDST file, damage ratings have been qualitatively assigned to each drill stem test based on the nature of the build-up curve compared to the recovery. Types of damage have been categorized as follows: CLASS I DE Definite Damage CLASS II PO Possible Damage CLASS III NO No Damage b Cannot Be Determined [email protected] AIFE Damage Ratings [email protected] AIFE Damage Ratings Definite Damage (deep)
[email protected] AIFE Incremental Detail Incremental detail is captured on each shut-in with a radius of curvature. Increments from the original report are preferred, however, in the event that increments are not provided or appear incorrect the shut-in(s) are digitized. Horner analysis is completed on each shut-in with a build-up curve to determine extrapolated pressure (P * or Pmax) and slope (for use in reservoir calculations). The best extrapolation/build-up curve is identified as the Pmax for that test. [email protected] AIFE Horner Plots Horner plots/extrapolated pressure are completed on each shut-in with a radius of curvature The Horner plot and build-up curves are included in the AIFE on-line report where applicable, including the p* and Horner Slope for each curve [email protected] AIFE Temperature Data Both the bottom hole temperature and recorder temperature (when taken separately from the bottom hole temperature) are recorded in the database Temperature data can be accessed for regional
mapping [email protected] AIFE Salinity Data When provided, the reported Salinity and Chloride content are recorded from the original DST report in the database Salinity data can be accessed for regional mapping [email protected] AIFE DST Recoveries All recoveries are captured from the original DST report and are reported with a fully detailed description; additionally, recoveries are verified against flowing pressures and any anomalies noted Gas rates are captured including the gas measuring instrument, the choke size utilized, the Psi reading and the calculated production rate On the DST reports the first, last and maximum gas rates during the test are provided [email protected] AIFE Formation Tops Each DST is assigned a Formation top. Historically when the database was constructed AIFE had access to the Amoco welldata database, the tops are
identified with standard formation abbreviation tables and have the prefix of I, F or R, the I denoting the Amoco top pick, the F the front page of the microfilm and the R denoting the formation given on the original report, the formation table is available to users upon request [email protected] AIFE Pressure/Depth Data Each recorder run on the test is reviewed as to its mechanical performance and the best recorder is utilized for the pressure information, pressures must also compare between recorders within recorder capacity and depth difference guidelines, this serves as a check on tool plugging and recorder performance All pressures are taken from the original report unless not provided and are that event are estimated, with comments indicating which pressures were estimated Recorder depths are the depths as reported on the DST report or taken from the tool string diagram, not the top or bottom of interval
The recorder depth allows for calculation of pressure/depth ratios and construction of pressure/elevation and pressure/depth charts [email protected] AIFE DST Data Captured The following data elements are captured in the DST-Data segment of the Database when provided on the original DST report (page 1 of 2):
CPA-NO Location COORDINATES Bottom Hole Coordinates API-NO American Pet. Assn Unique well identifier DST-NO Drill Stem Test Number LAT Latitude LONG Longitude WELL-NAME Original Well Name KBKelly Bushing Elevation GR Ground Elevation DRILLING-FLOOR Drilling Floor Elevation OPERATOR Original Well Operator TEST-COTest Company Name TEST-DATE Test Date YYMMDD PACKER-DIAM Packer Diameter PACKER-LENGPacker Length PACKER-NO Number of one type of packer TOTAL#PACKERS Total Number of Packers Used BH-CHOKE-SIZE Bottom Hole Choke Size CAL-HOLE Was the Hole calipered RAT Rat hole diameter HOLE-LENGTH Rat hole Length MUD-TYPE Mud type MUD-WT Mud weight REC-TEMP Recorder temperature
BH-TEMP Bottom Hole temperature HOLE-COND Hole condition HOLE-SIZE Diameter of the well bore DC-SIZE-ID-UP Upper drill collar size I.D. DC-SIZE-ID-LW Lower drill collar size I.D.
TIMES (Period 1)Times for flow/shut-in period one TIMES (Period 2)Times for flow/shut-in period two TIMES (Period 3)Times for flow/shut-in period three [email protected] AIFE DST Data Captured The following data elements are captured in the DST-Data segment of the database when provided on the original DST report (page 2 of 2)
TIMES (Period 4) BLOW-DESCR TEST-TYPE MULT? MULT-NO MULT-OF DAMAGE PERM HF RCV-OF RCV-AMTS-CHAR RCV-CODES REV-OUT COMMENTS QC-ORIG MISRUN-CODES REC-USED P-MAX GAS-INSTR GAS-RISER GM-CNT (Period 1) GM-CNT (Period 2) Times for flow/shut-in period four Blow description (4 lines max, 78 char. per line) Test type Was the test a multiple Multiple sequence number Number of multiple tests Formation damage
Permeability of the test Hydrodynamic factor (predominant recovery) Descr. of recovery (6 lines, max 64 char. per line) Amount recovered Recovery codes Was the recovery reversed out Analysts comments on the test Quality code of test Reasons for the quality code Recorder used for pressures Extrapolated Pressure maximum Gas measuring instrument type Gas riser size Gas measurement counter for flow period one Gas measurement counter for flow period two
VISCG VISCG-TP ZFACTORG POROSITY NET-PAY REL-DENSITY REL-DENSITY-TP SALIN CL-CONTENT Gas measurement counter for flow period three Gas measurement counter for flow period four Gas comments (4 lines, max 78 char. per line) Gas comment flags Api-gravity-liquid Compressibility ratio-liquid PH Level-liquid Resistivity of water Testing temp. for Resistivity Specific gravity-liquid Testing temp for Specific gravity Viscosity-liquid Testing temp for viscosity Water gradient Compressibility ratio-gas Maximum gas flow rate Specific gravity-gas Testing temperature for specific gravity Viscosity-gas Testing temperature for viscosity Z Factor
Porosity of interval tested Net pay of interval tested Relative density Testing temperature for relative density Salinity content Chloride content [email protected] AIFE Gas/Recorder Data Captured Recorder Data Gas Measurement Data CPA-NO Location COORDINATES Bottom hole Coordinates API-NO API unique well identifier DST-NO DST number BLK-NO Block sequence counter GAS-MEASUREMENTS*
Gas measurements block *20 quadruplets of gas measurements per record, each Quadruplet: TIME, SURFACE CHOKE, READING, FLOW VOLUME CPA-NO Location COORDINATES Bottom hole coordinates API-NO API unique well identifier DST-NO DST number REC-NO Recorder serial number REC-PERF Recorder performance code REC-TYPE Abbreviated recorder type REC-DEPTH Recorder depth REC- I/O Inside/Outside recorder
REC-CAPACITY Recorder pressure capacity REC-TEMP Recorder temperature REC-TEMP-HI Recorder high temp. range REC-TEMP-LO Recorder low temp. range [email protected] AIFE Recorder Data Captured for Recorder Used in Pressure Analysis
CPA-NO Location COORDINATES Bottom hole coordinates API-NO API unique well identifier DST-NO DST number REC-NO Recorder serial number INC-MODE How shut-in increments obtained SI-CNT (Period 1) Tally for first shut-in SI-CNT (Period 2) Tally for second shut-in SI-CNT (Period 3) Tally for third shut-in SI-CNT (Period 4) Tally for fourth shut-in PRESSURES (Period 1) Press. For 1st flow/shut-in period PRESSURES (Period 2) Press. For 2nd flow/shut-in period PRESSURES (Period 3) Press. For 3rd flow/shut-in period PRESSURES (Period 4) Press for 4th flow/shut-in period USE-IGNORE (Period 1) Used/ignored points for 1 shut-in horner USE-IGNORE (Period 2) Used/ignored points for 2nd shut-in horner USE-IGNORE (Period 3) Used/ignored points for 3rd shut-in horner USE-IGNORE (Period 4) Used/ignored points for 4th shut-in horner SEG-ID (Period 1) IDs for first flow/shut-in period SEG-ID (Period 2) IDs for second flow/shut-in period SEG-ID (Period 3) IDs for third flow/shut-in period SEG-ID (Period 4) IDs for fourth flow/shut-in period SEG-QC (Period 1) QCs for first flow/shut-in period SEG-QC (Period 2) QCs for second flow/shut-in period
SEG-QC (Period 3) QCs for third flow/shut-in period SEG-QC (Period 4) QCs for fourth flow/shut-in period HS-I Initial hydrostatic pressure HS-F final shut-in pressure ANAL-TYPE Analysis type L or G SLOPEL (Period 1) Horner slope shut-in one (liquid) SLOPEL (Period 2) Horner slope shut-in two (liquid)
SLOPEL (Period 3) Horner slope shut-in three (liquid) SLOPEL (Period 4) Horner slope shut-in four (liquid) EXTRAPL (Period 1) Extrapolated press. Shut-in one (liquid) EXTRAPL (Period 2) Extrapolated press. Shut-in two (liquid) EXTRAPL (Period 3) Extrapolated press. Shut-in three (liquid) EXTRAPL (Period 4) Extrapolated press. Shut-in four (liquid) SLOPEG (Period 1) Horner slope shut-in one (gas) SLOPEG (Period 2) Horner slope shut-in two (gas) SLOPEG (Period 3) Horner slope shut-in three (gas) SLOPEG (Period 4) Horner slope shut-in four (gas) EXTRAPG (Period 1) Extrapolated press. Shut-in one (gas) EXTRAPG (Period 2) Extrapolated press. Shut-in two (gas) EXTRAPG (Period 3) Extrapolated press. Shut-in three (gas) EXTRAPG (Period 4) Extrapolated press. Shut-in four (gas) FLOW-CNT (Period1) Tally for first flow FLOW-CNT (Period 2) Tally for second flow FLOW-CNT (Period 3) Tally for third flow FLOW-CNT (Period 4) Tally for fourth flow FLOW-MODE How flow increments obtained [email protected] AIFE Incremental Data Captured Each shut-in with a radius of curvature has incremental detail, either from the original DST report or digitized, flow data is captured when provided on the original DST report Flow Data Shut-in Build-up Data
CPA-NO COORDINATES API-NO DST-NO REC-NO BLK-NO PT-INC Note: 30 time/pressure pairs per record Location Bottom hole coordinates API unique well identifier DST number Recorder serial number Block sequence counter Shut-in increment block
CPA-NO COORDINATES API-NO DST-NO REC-NO BLK-NO PT-INC Note: 30 time/pressure pairs per record Location Bottom hole coordinates API unique well identifier DST number Recorder serial number Block sequence counter Flow increment counter [email protected] AIFE Utilization of DST Data The below highlights information available and potential uses of AIFE analyzed DST Data Individual Test
Indication of near wellbore reservoir characteristics Detailed assessment of Quality of test Drill Pipe & Drill collar data Horner extrapolation and slopes Permeability assessment Damage assessment Detailed recoveries and blow description Horner plot and build up curve charts Data for detailed reservoir calculations Incremental Detail on Shut-in Buildups Regional Utilization Permeability maps to highlight potential stratigraphic traps Temperature maps Potentiometric surface maps to indicate flow potentials, determine directions for preferential migration of hydrocarbons
Salinity maps Pressure/Elevation Charts to determine continuity of reservoirs, estimate gas/oil/water contacts Pressure/Depth Charts Pressure/Depth ratio maps to locate abnormal and subnormally pressured reservoirs [email protected] Accessing AIFE DST Data AIFE DST Data can be accessed by individual or regional data requests made directly through AIFE or through AIFEs online server Online access is provided to clients who have licensed a particular data set and provides for an unlimited number of users and unlimited data retrievals in the licensed geographic region Clients who license a geographic data set receive online access and a copy of the data for in-house loading in MS Access format [email protected] AIFE Sample Data
To view sample DST reports online go to www.aifeonline.com , enter the user name of demo, the password of demo, and then go to the Search prompt, select the State of Montana, then select the County of Golden Valley, you can then view all of the tests in that County. Each Drill Stem Test has been analyzed from the original DST report by AIFEs experienced personnel in a consistent and detailed fashion for mechanical soundness, qualitative permeability and damage, extrapolated pressure, and assigned a final test Quality Code. The Quality Codes are copyrighted by AIFE and enable the user to quickly assess the test results with a high degree of confidence. [email protected] AIFE Online Access In addition to the individual DST test reports users can create a downloadable Excel
file of data (sample below) and export the increment data for loading into reservoir calculation software [email protected] AIFE Pricing The AIFE database is available to the energy sector on a graduated pricing scale with prices ranging from $90 for an individual test report to $3.00 per test with maximum volume discount being applied (please contact your AIFE representative for further detail)*. Online access is available through AIFEs online server for a nominal fee. The fee is invoiced annually and varies according to the number of States/Counties which the user accesses. Online access is provided for the clients area of interest and includes an unlimited number of users and data retrievals. For clients who license in excess of 60,000 tests annual updates are provided at the rate of $35.00 per test. Updates normally comprise 600 tests a year**. All data is provided under a restrictive license without the right of resale nor disclosure to third parties except in the event of disclosure for the purpose of prospect generation for oil and gas. *The average cost to obtain an analyzed DST from a service (testing) company is $100-$200, provided the DST report is available or you provide it to the testing company. **Historical data collection costs for the raw DST report alone averaged $10.00 per test, current costs average $14.00 to $20 per test, without analysis or computerization [email protected] AIFE Database Interesting Statistics
In the AIFE Database the following Quality Codes have be assigned: A Quality 4012 tests B Quality 8388 tests C Quality 31,243 tests D Quality 38,336 tests E Quality 36,952 tests F Quality 32,195 tests G Quality 20,577 tests A Horner extrapolation greater than 150 psi from the read shut-in pressure is generally considered unreliable Based on this guideline 18.7% of the tests (F Quality) looked at on raw data sources have unreliable shut-in pressures Tests falling in the C and D Quality codes can have extrapolated pressures (true formation pressure) ranging from 30 to 150 psi above the shut-in pressure reported through raw DST data sources Testing Companies historically reported 5% of tests run as misruns, the AIFE database indicates that 12% of tests
were in fact misruns, in most cases the difference owing to bottom packer seat failure on straddle tests or plugged tools, the additional 7% not being reported as misruns on raw data sources Over 5900 tests in the AIFE database have a Damage classification of DE (Definite Damage) Over 7200 tests in the AIFE database have a Damage classification of PO (Possible Damage) The AIFE database contains historical Drill Stem Tests dating as far back as 1948 A large portion of the Historical Drill Stem tests were collected by Petroleum Research Corp. in the late 1950s and early 1960s, whom AIFE acquired Construction of the AIFE database commenced in 1981, at one point AIFE and its Canadian counterpart CIFE
employed over 40 individuals involved in database construction and Hydrodynamics CIFE Hydrodynamics personnel were the first in the industry to complete and sell regional Hydrodynamic studies The CIFE database covering the provincial and federal lands of Canada and containing over 260,000 analyzed Drill Stem tests has become the industry standard in Canada for computerized DST data CIFE was sold to IHS Canada in the early 2000s AIFE Principals have been associated with the Canadian/ U.S. database since 1978 AIFE has constructed Pressure related databases in a number of foreign countries, including Adam, Egypt and Qatar to name a few [email protected] General DST Industry Information
The AIFE database contains tests from over 120 testing companies Drill Stem testing on new wells has diminished significantly in the United States and Canada AIFE successfully managed to obtain DST records from Baker Industries (after obtaining legal releases from well operators) and the firms it acquired over the years, including Lynes, Virgs and Star Hughes Most testing Companies have destroyed their historical records, Halliburton, one of the largest testing companies (AIFE has over 33,000 tests run by Halliburton), has indicated to AIFE that its historical records have been purged Most oil and gas Companies have destroyed their historical records that contained the original DST reports, usually during buy-outs or mergers AIFE personnel spent over 10 years collecting DST information from testing companies and oil and gas firms AIFE no longer offers courses to the industry and the number of individuals who do so has diminished significantly with Mr. Hugh W. Reid, of Calgary, being the one individual who has had a lifetime passion for DSTs and Hydrodynamics still offering courses Mr. Reid is not affiliated with AIFE in any form and can be reached at [email protected] or his website at www.hughwreid.com should you have interest in his services [email protected] Data for over 170,000 Analyzed Drill Stem Tests in the Continental U.S. [email protected]
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