Agus Gobbetti Marton Pintore Vazquez - EG2017 Tutorial 4 ...

Agus Gobbetti Marton Pintore Vazquez - EG2017 Tutorial 4 ...

Visual Computing Group Part 2 Mobile graphics trends Hardware architectures Applications 1 Visual Computing Group Hardware architectures 2 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Brief history of mobile graphics hardware Apple (PowerVR)

Samsung (mostly ARM) iPhone (MBX) Buys PA Semi iPhone 3GS (SGX535) Imagination PowerVR MBX SGX535/541 (GLES 2.0) Hummingbird Omnia HD (TI SGX543 (GLES (Cortex A8) OMAP 3 & 2.0, GL 2.1) Power VR SGX530) SGX545 (GLES 2.0 GL 3.2)

ARM Mali Buys Phalanx Qualcomm Snapdragon/ Adreno Mali 400 GLES 2.0 A7/A8 & A8X (GT64XX) A9 (GT7600) Plans to build its own GPU Exynos 5433/7410 (20nm, MaliT760 MP6)

Intel Nvidia 2007 Buys Imageon (Adreno) Sells Imageon 2008 2009 A4 (ARM Cortex A8) Series 6XE/XT GLES 3.1 GL 3.2 (28nm) AMD T600 GLES 2.0, DX9.0

T700 GLES 3,1, DX 11.1 OpenCL 1.1 Series7XE Vulkan 1.0 GLES 3.1 (latter ones T800 GLES 3,1, 10nm) DX 11.1-11.2 OpenCL 1.2 Apple will no longer require its services in 18-24 months Furian? Adreno 530 GLES 3.1+, OpenCL 2, DX 11.2 Vulcan 1.0 Tegra 2 (CortexA9, GLES 2.0) 2010

Tegra 3 (CortexA9, GLES 2.0) 2011 2012 Tegra 4 (CortexA15, GL 4.4, 28nm) 2013 Tegra K1 (CortexA15, GL 4.4, 28nm) Tegra X1 (CortexA57, GLES 3.1, GL 4.5, Vulkan, 20nm) 2014 Next Tegra generations seem to be for automotive 2015 2016 3 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017

Architectures (beginning 2015) ARM MIPS x86 4 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Architectures x86 (CISC 32/64bit) Intel Atom Z3740/Z3770, X3/X5/X7 AMD Amur / Styx (announced) Present in few smartphones, more common in tablets Less efficient ARM RISC 32/64bit With SIMD add-ons

Most common chip for smartphones More efficient & smaller area MIPS RISC 32/64bit Including some SIMD instructions Acquired by Imagination, Inc. @2014 5 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Architectures RISC vs. CISC but CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) Fast program execution (optimized complex paths) Complex instructions (i.e. memory-to-memory instructions) RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) Fast instructions (fixed cycles per instruction) Simple instructions (fixed/reduced cost per instruction)

FISC (Fast Instruction Set Computer) Current RISC processors integrate many improvements from CISC: superscalar, branch prediction, SIMD, out-of-order Philosophy fixed/reduced cycle count/instr Discussion (Post-RISC): http://archive.arstechnica.com/cpu/4q99/risc-cisc/rvc-5.html 6 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Landscape has changed a bit Status by 2014-2015: Intel Atom X3/X5/X7 announced (March 2015) AMD announces Amur / Styx (20nm, Oct. 2014) Nvidia launches Tegra X1 (March 2015) ARM the only EU big technology company Imagination announces Furian (sub 14nm, March 2017) Imaginations chips are in iPhones & iPads

Nowadays: Intel quits mobile Apr/May 2016 AMD cancels 20nm chips (Jul. 2015) Nvidia cancels Shield tablet (Aug. 2016) ARM acquired by Softbank (Sep. 2016) Apple tells Imagination that their IP will not be needed in 18-24 months (Apr. 2017) 7 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Architectures (nowadays) ARM MIPS x86 Acquired by Imagination, inc

8 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Architectures ARM ARM Ltd. RISC processor (32/64 bit) IP (intellectual property) Instruction Set / ref. implementation CPU / GPU (Mali) Licenses (instruction set OR ref. design) Instruction Set license -> custom made design (SnapDragon, Samsung in Galaxys, Apple in iPones & iPads) Optimizations (particular paths, improved core freq. control,) Reference design (Cortex A9, Cortex A15, Cortex A53/A57) Licensees (instruction set OR ref. design) Apple, Qualcomm, Samsung, Nvidia, AMD, MediaTek, Amazon (through

Annapurna Labs, Inc.) Few IS licenses, mostly adopting reference design Manufacturers Contracted by Licensees GlobalFoundries, United Microelectronics, TSM 9 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Architectures ARM Suppported on Android, iOS, Win Phone, Tizen, Firefox OS, BlackBerry, Ubuntu Phone, Biggest mobile market share Typically paired with mobile GPUs. Existing brands: Adreno 4x0/5x0 Qualcomm PowerVR 8XE (Rogue) Imagination

Mali T8x0/G51/G71 ARM General strategies: Cache coherence week sequential code guarantees on multithreading!! Heavy dependence on compiler optimize instruction scheduling Operation dependencies , loop unrolling, etc Use SIMD extensions 10 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Architecture types High performance Premium smartphones & tablets High area efficiency Medium-to-low smartphones Ultra-low power Smartwatches 11

Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Architectures Mobile GPU architecture trends 12 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Graphics pipeline trends Tiled rendering Data (texture) compression Other optimizations 13 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Tiled Rendering Immediate Mode Rendering (IMR) Tile-Based Rendering (TBR) Tile-Based Deferred Rendering (TBDR) 14

Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Architectures GPU VS FS Inmediate Mode Rendering (IMR) Geometry is processed in submission order High overdraw (shaded pixels can be overwritten) Buffers are kept in System Memory High bandwidth / power / latency Early-Z helps depending on geometry sorting Depth buffer value closer than fragment discard http://blog.imgtec.com/powervr/understanding-powervr-series5xt-powervr-tbdr-and-architecture-efficiency-part-4 15 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Architectures GPU

Tile Based Rendering (TBR) Rasterizing per-tile (triangles in bins per tile) 16x16, 32x32 Buffers are kept on-chip memory (GPU) fast! geometry limit? Triangles processed in submission order (TB-IMR) Overdraw (front-to-back -> early z cull) Early-Z helps depending on geometry sorting http://blog.imgtec.com/powervr/understanding-powervr-series5xt-powervr-tbdr-and-architecture-efficiency-part-4 16 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Architectures GPU Tile Based Deferred Rendering (TBDR) Fragment processing (tex + shade) ~waits for Hidden Surface Removal Micro Depth Buffer depth test before fragment submission whole tile 1 frag/pixel Limit: ~100Ktri + complex shader iPAD 2X slower than Desktop GeForce at HSR (FastMobileShaders_siggraph2011) Possible to prefetch textures before shading/texturing Hard to profile!!! ~~~Timing?

http://blog.imgtec.com/powervr/understanding-powervr-series5xt-powervr-tbdr-and-architecture-efficiency-part-4 17 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Data/texture compression ARMs Adaptive Scalable Texture Compression (ASTC) supported by most mobile GPU vendors ETC2/EAC standard compression OpenGL ES 3.0 Compression hardware also present in display hardware Rendered images stored and transferred to the display in a compressed Saving bandwidth 18 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Other optimizations Deferred shading Primitive elimination Skipping updates to pixels that do not change ARM memory transaction elimination

19 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Trends Specific hardware for ray tracing Learning libraries & hardware (e.g. Qualcomms Fast CV, Nvidias CUDA Deep Neural Network) Skipping updates to pixels that do not change ARM memory transaction elimination 20 Visual Computing Group Applications 21 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Applications Wide range of applications

Cultural Heritage Medical Image 3D object registration GIS Gaming VR & AR Building reconstruction Virtual HCI 3D representation + additional information 22 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mobile 3D interactive graphics General pipeline similar to standard interactive

applications DISPLAY DATA ACCESS Scene RENDERIN G e m a Fr INTERACTIO N 23 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Remote rendering MOBILE DEVICE

General solution since first PDAs SERVER DATA ACCESS Scene DISPLAY RENDERIN G e m a Fr INTERACTIO N NETWORK 24 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Remote rendering

3D graphics applications require intensive computation and network bandwidth electronic games visualization of very complex 3D scenes Remote rendering has long history and it is successfully applied for gaming services Limitation: interaction latency in cellular networks 25 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mixed Mobile/Remote rendering As mobile GPUs progress... MOBILE DEVICE SERVER DATA ACCESS Scene

DISPLAY RENDERIN G e m a Fr INTERACTIO N NETWORK 26 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mixed Mobile/Remote rendering Model based versus Image based methods Model based methods Original models Eisert and Fechteler. Low delay streaming of computer

graphics (ICIP 2008) Partial models Gobbetti et al. Adaptive Quad Patches: an Adaptive Regular Structure for Web Distribution and Adaptive Rendering of 3D Models. (Web3D 2012) Simplified models Couple of lines Point clouds Balsa et al.,. Compression-domain Seamless Multiresolution Visualization of Gigantic Meshes on Mobile Devices (Web3D 2013) Diepstraten et al., 2004. Remote Line Rendering for Mobile Devices (CGI 2004) Duguet and Drettakis. Flexible point-based rendering on mobile devices (IEEE Trans. on CG & Appl, 2004) 27 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mixed Mobile/Remote rendering

Model based versus Image based methods Model based methods Original models Eisert and Fechteler. Low delay streaming of computer graphics (ICIP 2008) Point clouds Partial models organized as hierarchical grids. Tested on PDAs Simplified models Couple of lines Point clouds Gobbetti et al. Adaptive Quad Patches: an Adaptive Regular Structure for Web Distribution and Adaptive Rendering of 3D Models. (Web3D 2012)

Balsa et al.,. Compression-domain Seamless Multiresolution Visualization of Gigantic Meshes on Mobile Devices (Web3D 2013) Diepstraten et al., 2004. Remote Line Rendering for Mobile Devices (CGI 2004) Duguet and Drettakis. Flexible point-based rendering on mobile devices (IEEE Trans. on CG & Appl, 2004) 28 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mixed Mobile/Remote rendering Model based versus Image based methods Model based methods Original models Eisert and Fechteler. Low delay streaming of computer graphics (ICIP 2008) Partial models Transfer couple of 2D line Gobbetti et al. Adaptive Quad Patches: an Adaptive Regular

primitives over the network,Structure for Web Distribution and Adaptive Rendering of 3D Models. (Web3D 2012) which are rendered locally by Balsa et al.,. Compression-domain Seamless the mobile device Simplified models Couple of lines Point clouds Multiresolution Visualization of Gigantic Meshes on Mobile Devices (Web3D 2013) Diepstraten et al., 2004. Remote Line Rendering for Mobile Devices (CGI 2004) Duguet and Drettakis. Flexible point-based rendering on mobile devices (IEEE Trans. on CG & Appl, 2004) 29 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mixed Mobile/Remote rendering Model based versus Image based methods

Model based methods Original models Eisert and Fechteler. Low delay streaming of computer graphics (ICIP 2008) Partial models Gobbetti et al. Adaptive Quad Patches: an Adaptive Regular Structure for Web Distribution and Adaptive Rendering of 3D Models. (Web3D 2012) Simplified models Balsa et al.,. Compression-domain Seamless Multiresolution Visualization of Gigantic Meshes on Mobile Devices (Web3D 2013) Couple of lines et al., 2004. Remote Line Rendering for Mobile Intercept and Diepstraten stream OpenGL commands

Devices (CGI 2004) Better performances with respect to video streaming Duguet and Drettakis. Flexible point-based rendering on Point clouds mobile devices (IEEE Trans. on CG & Appl, 2004) Limitation: clients need powerful GPU 30 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mixed Mobile/Remote rendering Model based versus Image based methods Model based methods Original models Eisert and Fechteler. Low delay streaming of computer

graphics (ICIP 2008) Partial models Gobbetti et al. Adaptive Quad Patches: an Adaptive Regular Structure for Web Distribution and Adaptive Rendering of 3D Models. (Web3D 2012) Simplified models Couple of lines Balsa et al.,. Compression-domain Seamless Multiresolution Visualization of Gigantic Meshes on Mobile Devices (Web3D 2013) Diepstraten et al., 2004. Remote Line Rendering for Mobile Devices (CGI 2004) More details in Part 5 Point clouds Duguet and Drettakis. Flexible point-based rendering on mobile devices (IEEE Trans. on CG & Appl, 2004) 31 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017

Mixed Mobile/Remote rendering Image based methods Image impostors Noimark and Cohen-Or. Streaming scenes to mpeg-4 video-enabled devices (IEEE, CG&A 2003) Lamberti and Sanna. A streaming-based solution for remote visualization of 3D graphics on mobile devices (IEEE, Trans. VCG, 2007) Environment maps Bouquerche and Pazzi. Remote rendering and streaming of progressive panoramas for mobile devices (ACM Multimedia 2006) Depth images Zhu et al. Towards peer-assisted rendering in networked virtual environments (ACM Multimedia 2011) Shi et al. A Real-Time Remote Rendering System for Interactive Mobile Graphics (ACM Trans. On Multimedia, 2012) Doellner et al. Server-based rendering of large 3D scenes for mobile devices using G-buffer cube maps ( ACM Web3D, 2012) 32 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017

Mixed Mobile/Remote rendering Image based methods Image impostors Noimark and Cohen-Or. Streaming scenes to mpeg-4 video-enabled devices (IEEE, CG&A 2003) Lamberti and Sanna. A streaming-based solution for remote visualization of 3D graphics on mobile devices (IEEE, Trans. VCG, 2007) Environment maps Image representations are the server, Bouquerche and Pazzi. Remote rendering andcreated streamingby of progressive panoramas for mobile devices (ACM in

Multimedia 2006)by the client to account for and warped real time user interaction Depth images Zhu et al. Towards peer-assisted rendering in networked virtual environments (ACM Multimedia 2011) Shi et al. A Real-Time Remote Rendering System for Interactive Mobile Graphics (ACM Trans. On Multimedia, 2012) Doellner et al. Server-based rendering of large 3D scenes for mobile devices using G-buffer cube maps ( ACM Web3D, 2012) 33 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mixed Mobile/Remote rendering Model based vs Image based methods Constraints: rendering quality, bandwidth, interactivity Model based Partial models Simplified

Original models models Network bandwidth Image based Depth images Image impostors Environment maps Client computation Rendering quality Occlusion warping limitations 34 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mobile visualization systems Volume rendering Moser and Weiskopf. Interactive volume rendering on mobile devices. Vision, Modeling, and Visualization VMV. Vol. 8. 2008.

Noguerat al. Volume Rendering Strategies on Mobile Devices. GRAPP/IVAPP. 2012. Campoalegre, Brunet, and Navazo. Interactive visualization of medical volume models in mobile devices. Personal and ubiquitous computing 17.7 (2013): 1503-1514. Rodrguez, Marcos Balsa, and Pere Pau Vzquez Alcocer. Practical Volume Rendering in Mobile Devices. Advances in Visual Computing. Springer, 2012. 708-718. Point cloud rendering Balsa et al. Interactive exploration of gigantic point clouds on mobile devices. ( VAST 2012) He et al. A multiresolution object space point-based rendering approach for mobile devices (AFRIGRAPH, 2007) 35 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mobile visualization systems Volume rendering Moser and Weiskopf. Interactive volume rendering on mobile devices. Vision, Modeling, and Visualization VMV. Vol. 8. 2008. Noguerat al. Volume Rendering Strategies on Mobile Devices. GRAPP/IVAPP. 2012. see section 5 for details

Campoalegre, Brunet, and Navazo. Interactive visualization of medical volume models in mobile devices. Personal and ubiquitous computing 17.7 (2013): 1503-1514. Rodrguez, Marcos Balsa, and Pere Pau Vzquez Alcocer. Practical Volume Rendering in Mobile Devices. Advances in Visual Computing. Springer, 2012. 708-718. Point cloud rendering Balsa et al. Interactive exploration of gigantic point clouds on mobile devices. ( VAST 2012) He et al. A multiresolution object space point-based rendering approach for mobile devices (AFRIGRAPH, 2007) 36 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mobile rendering Nowadays... MOBILE DEVICE DISPLAY DATA ACCESS

Scene RENDERIN G e m a Fr INTERACTIO N 37 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mobile rendering Or better... MOBILE DEVICE SERVER DATA ACCESS

Scene DISPLAY RENDERIN G e m a Fr INTERACTIO N NETWORK 38 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mobile rendering Or better... MOBILE DEVICE SERVER Chunk-based data

streaming DATA RENDERIN Scene Balsa et (like HuMoRS ACCESS G al. 2014) Limitations: bandwidth consumption (for now) DISPLAY e m a Fr INTERACTIO N NETWORK 39 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017

Mobile rendering with capture Exploiting mobile device sensors... MOBILE DEVICE Environment DATA ACCESS Scene CAPTURE RENDERIN G DISPLAY e m a Fr INTERACTIO N 40 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017

Mobile rendering with capture Exploiting mobile device sensors... MOBILE DEVICE Environment CAPTURE 3D scanning with mobile phone DATA RENDERIN Scene Kolev et ACCESS al, CVPR 2014 G ETH Zurich DISPLAY e m a Fr INTERACTIO N

Kolev et al. Turning Mobile Phones into 3D Scanners (CVPR 2014) Tanskanen et al. Live Metric 3D Reconstruction on Mobile Phones (ICCV 2013) 41 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mobile rendering with capture Exploiting mobile device sensors... MOBILE DEVICE Environment Example: CAPTURE Google Tango DATA RENDERIN

Scene https://www.google.com/ ACCESS G atap/projecttango/#project DISPLAY e m a Fr INTERACTIO N 42 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mobile rendering with capture Exploiting mobile device sensors... MOBILE DEVICE Environment CAPTURE

see section 4 for more applications of sensor DATA RENDERIN Scene integration ACCESS G DISPLAY e m a Fr INTERACTIO N 43 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Trends in mobile graphics Hardware acceleration for improving frame rates, resolutions and rendering quality Parallel pipelines

Real-time ray tracing Multi-rate approaches 44 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 SGRT: Real-time ray tracing Samsung reconfigurable GPU based on Ray Tracing Main key features: an area-efficient parallel pipelined traversal unit flexible and high-performance kernels for shading and ray generation Shin et al., Full-stream architecture for ray tracing with efficient data transmission, 2014 IEEE ISCAS Lee, Won-Jong, et al. SGRT: A mobile GPU architecture for real-time ray tracing. Proceedings of the 5th High-Performance Graphics Conference, 2013. 45 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Adaptive shading

Triangles rasterized into coarse fragments that correspond to multiple pixels of coverage Coarse fragments are shaded, then partitioned into fine fragments for subsequent per-pixel shading He et al. Extending the graphics pipeline with adaptive, multi-rate shading. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 33.4 , 2014. Clarberg, Petrik, et al. AMFS: adaptive multi-frequency shading for future graphics processors. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 33.4 , 2014. Won-Jong Lee, et al. Adaptive multi-rate ray sampling on mobile ray tracing GPU. In SIGGRAPH ASIA 2016 Mobile Graphics and Interactive Applications (SA '16). 46 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Mobile rendering with capture Exploiting mobile device sensors...

MOBILE DEVICE Environment DATA ACCESS Scene CAPTURE RENDERIN G DISPLAY e m a Fr INTERACTIO N 47 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Examples: Physical simulations

Framework for physically and chemically-based simulations of analog alternative photographic processes Efficient fluid simulation and manual process running on iPad Echevarria et al. Computational simulation of alternative photographic processes. Computer Graphics Forum. Vol. 32. 2013. 48 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Examples: Correcting visual aberrations Computational display technology that predistorts the presented content for an observer, so that the target image is perceived without the need for eyewear Demonstrated in low-cost prototype mobile devices

Huang, Fu-Chung, et al. Eyeglasses-free display: towards correcting visual aberrations with computational light field displays.ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 33.4, 2014. 49 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017 Conclusions Heterogeneous applications driven by bandwidth and processing power Trends desktop software solutions tend to be ported to the mobile world gaming modelling and 3D animation complex illumination models Sensor integration open new scenarios examples: live acquisition, mHealth (using sensors and cameras for tracking and processing signals) 50 Mobile Graphics Tutorial EuroGraphics 2017

Next Session GRAPHICS DEVELOPMENT FOR MOBILE SYSTEMS 51

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