Age of Ideologies III Fundamentalism, Ecumenism, Mass Evangelism, and Mega Churches R. A. Torrey Born 1856 in Hoboken New Jersey into a fairly well off family Grew up in a Christian home w/ Christian customs, but he didnt become a Christian Went to Yale at 15 and became enthralled with all of the worldly joys that were available Through the prayers of his mother he was saved Met D.L. Moody and was encouraged to evangelize
Got married and moved to Germany to study at the schools of higher criticism in Leipzig & Erlangen R. A. Torrey Upon returning to the States, he began to pastor a tiny church in Minneapolis, the Open Door Church 1888 began working among the poor, at which point he dedicated himself to praying through Torrey was a man of intense and fervent prayer and all his churches were marked by constant prayer meetings 1889 took over the Chicago Evangelization Society (now Moody Bible Institute)
He began teaching with great effect, using his education to expound the scriptures R. A. Torrey 1894 began pastoring Chicago Avenue Church (now Moody Memorial Church) soon the 2,200 member auditorium was packed, he blamed prayer 1898 started a weekly prayer meeting to pray for worldwide revival, averaging about 300 people Torrey felt a burden to pray for the opportunity to preach worldwide, within a week he was asked to preach an evangelistic series in Australia Torreys leave of absence became permanent as he
traveled the world preaching for many years seeing huge revivals across the globe R. A. Torrey 1912 he began serving as the dean of BIOLA He became chief editor of a set of books called The Fundamentals a large collection of articles refuting liberal theology 1924-1928 moved to North Carolina and traveled around teaching bible conferences, then he died He wrote over 40 different books and everyone should read The Power of Prayer
He is one of my heroes yay Torrey Christian Fundamentalism Fundamentalism is a name for Christians that has been abused in modern times. As a movement it is hard to define due to the multiple groups that all have gone under the name Fundamentalist Originally fundamentalism arose as a reaction to growing liberal theology in the Church The name came from the 12 volume collection of essays The Fundamentals which attempted to oppose higher criticism, and set basic theology
Christian Fundamentalism Later in the mid 1900s Fundamentalism became synonymous with political actions and movements such as the temperance movement Became demonized in the 1950s on account of the Scopes trials Creationism v. Darwin dispute Now it covers an extremely wide gamut from standard evangelicals who believe the bible is inspired to those who believe that the world is ending tomorrow and the homosexuals are to blame
Scopes Trial Tennessee had outlawed the teaching of Evolution ACLU had offered to defend anybody violating the law, and John Scopes volunteered The case became huge involving ACLU lawyer Clarence Darrow and lawyer and three time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan Bryan was labeled a fundamentalist Christian (potentially a misnomer as his theology was loose at best) and in the course of the trial was made to look quite the fool The scopes trial was covered nationally with a strong
anti prosecution bias Scopes Trial The townspeople were labeled yokels and morons, and Bryan as a buffoon spouting theological bilge The defense was placed in the exact opposite light being represented as both educated and eloquent The ultimate verdict in the trial was guilty (Scopes had broken the law) and the penalty was $100 which Bryan offered to pay himself Scopes trial set the scene for the modern opinion of Fundamentalists, so in modern day reference Bryan is the picture of what a Christian Fundamentalist is seen
as Christian Ecumenism Protestant ecumenism ostensibly began in 1910 with John Mott and the calling together of the Edinburgh Missionary Conference Early ecumenism was focused on getting various denominations to cooperate in missions work A major player in early 1900s was the YMCA During WWII the International Missionary Council played a huge part, founding the Orphaned Missions Fund to support
missionaries who were stranded by the war Christian Ecumenism 1948 147 churches assembled to join the Faith and Order and Life and Work movements into the World Council of Churches 1961 the International Missionary Council joined with the World Council of Churches 1971 the WCC merged with the World Council of Christian Education Currently the WCC includes more than 340 churches representing 550 million Christians and is the foremost ecumenical group in
existence Christian Ecumenism Roman Catholic ecumenism started post Vatican II previously the traditional statement There is no salvation outside of the Catholic church ruled Vatican II allowed that others may be Christians, just incomplete ones, thus later Catholic ecumenism is based on uniting under one Catholic faith The RCC sends observers to all major WCC councils, but is not an official member Orthodoxy is a participant in most major ecumenical movements, but still maintains that they alone have
true orthodoxy Billy Sunday In 1862, William Ashley Sunday was born into a poor family, which lived in the United States. Eventually ending up in an orphanage Became a fairly renowned baseball player joining the Chicago White Stockings in 1883 1887 Sunday became a Christian 1888 He became a Presbyterian in order to marry Helen Nell Thompson. 1890 quit baseball and began working at the YMCA
1893 became the advance man for another evangelist, preparing each city for his revivals Billy Sunday 1896 Sunday began preaching his own revival sermons, using plain language and drama Was a huge success, with many getting saved at each of his revival sermons Began building a temporary wooden meeting house at each place he visited 1907 became an ordained Presbyterian minister His stage theatrics and booming voice enabled him to preach to giant crowds without amplification
Preached not only revival but political issues as well, he is famous for his Booze, or, Get on the Water Wagon sermon. Billy Sunday Set the prototype for Mass Evangelism involving an entire town with his revivals Reached a pinnacle of fame during WWI but lost popularity afterwards due to disinterest and the Fundamentalist-Modernist controversy Continued preaching until his death in 1935 Billy Graham
Born 1918 William Franklin Graham Jr. in Charlotte, North Carolina Was raised as a Presbyterian, even hearing Billy Sunday preach when he was 5, he became a Southern Baptist after his 1934 conversion Studied at the Florida Bible Institute, and later in 1943 he graduated from Wheaton College Married Ruth Bell shortly after graduating Began working with Youth For Christ, initially on the radio and then through speaking tours and organizational work Billy Graham
Began performing his own crusades many of which lasted much longer than scheduled Graham gained a push from the media, which gave him much free publicity Graham was accused of being an Elmer Gantry due to financial questions, he responded by forming the BGEA Bill Graham Evangelical Association which provided both organization and accountability The BGEA set a model as well as a standard for accountability in ministry Billy Graham
1960 the BGEA began publishing Decision magazine, other ministries included World Wide Pictures, and the Hour of Decision radio program 1992 Graham eased his schedule due to Parkinson's 1996 William Franklin Graham III became chairman of the BGEA 2005 Billy Graham performed what he called his last crusade Now lives in North Carolina with Ruth Over the course of his career has had the ability to impact and deal with politicians and nations and a massive scale, spoke to live audiences of 250 million
Mega Churches While large churches have often existed, Spurgeons Metropolitan Tabernacle for example, mega churches are a new movement Two major figures in the growth of the Mega Church movement were Bill Hybels and Chuck Smith, with Willow creek and Calvary Chapel A mega church in the U.S. is defined as any church with more than 2,000 members 53% of mega churches have 2-3000 members. Only 4% of mega churches have 10,000 or more in attendance
Mega Churches Mega churches are generally suburban, and non-or at least semi-denominational The largest mega church worldwide is the Yoido Full Gospel Church in Seoul, South Korea which has over 800,000 members Mega churches are often criticized as McChurches for their easy gospel, loose theology, seeker friendliness, and entertainment centered services They are also criticized as lacking in religion as noted in the Economist article on Megachurches "Where in God's name is the church?!?"
Mega Churches The proponents of mega churches laud their increased capacity to reach people and perform Christian function They generally eschew religiosity in an effort to reach the modern person where they are at Calvary Chapel is a mega church, but holds up well against the critiques Im teaching this class in a Calvary Chapel so Im bound to be somewhat biased, but also better able to make a decision. Mega churches are big, so is God, Have a nice day
Economic. The objective of economic sustainability is to ensure equity among different groups in the society. E.g. the working poor . Some solutions are to offer people reasonable wages and affordable housing.
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