Overview of Transaction Processing and Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Chapter 2 Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-1 Learning Objectives Describe the four parts of the data processing cycle and the major activities in each. Describe documents and procedures used to collect and process transaction data. Describe the ways information is stored in computer-based information systems.
Discuss the types of information that an AIS can provide. Discuss how organizations use enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems to process transactions and provide information. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-2 Data Processing Cycle Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-3 Data Input
Steps in Processing Input are: Capture transaction data triggered by a business activity (event). Make sure captured data are accurate and complete. Ensure company policies are followed (e.g., approval of transaction). Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-4 Data Capture Information collected for an activity includes: Activity of interest (e.g., sale)
Resources affected (e.g., inventory and cash) People who participated (e.g., customer and employee) Information comes from source documents. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-5 Source Documents Captures data at the source when the transaction takes place Paper source documents Turnaround documents
Source data automation (captured data from machines, e.g., Point of Sale scanners at grocery store) Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-6 Data Storage Important to understand how data is organized Chart of accounts Coding schemas that are well thought out to anticipate management needs are most efficient and effective.
Transaction journals (e.g., Sales) Subsidiary ledgers (e.g., Accounts receivable) General ledger Note: With the above, one can trace the path of the transaction (audit trail). Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-7 Audit trail for Invoice #156 for $1,876.50 sold to KDR Builders Copyright 2015 Pearson Education,
Inc. 2-8 Computer-Based Storage Data is stored in master files or transaction files. Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-9 Data Processing Four types of processing (CRUD): Creating new records (e.g., adding a customer)
Reading existing data Updating previous record or data Deleting data Data processing can be batch processed (e.g., post records at the end of the business day) or in real-time (process as it occurs). Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-10 Information Output The data stored in the database files can be viewed Online (soft copy) Printed out (hard copy) Document (e.g., sales invoice)
Report (e.g., monthly sales report) Query (question for specific information in a database, e.g., What division had the most sales for the month?) Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-11 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems Integrates activities from the entire organization Production Payroll Sales Purchasing
Financial Reporting Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-12 Advantages of ERP System Integrated enterprise-wide allowing for better flow of the information as its stored in a centralized database and can be accessed by various departments which also improves customer service. Data captured once (i.e., no longer need sales to enter data about a customer and then accounting to enter same customer data for invoicing) Improve access of control of the data through
security settings Standardization of procedures and reports Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2-13 Disadvantages of ERP System Costly Significant amount of time to implement Complex User resistance (learning new things is sometimes hard for employees) Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
2-14 Key Terms Data processing cycle Source documents Turnaround documents Source data automation General ledger Control account Coding Sequence code Block code Group code Mnemonic code Chart of accounts General ledger Specialized journal
trailEducation, CopyrightAudit 2015 Pearson Inc.
Entity Attributes Field Record Data value File Master file Transaction file Database Batch processing Online, real-time processing Document Report
Query Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system 2-15
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