3.1 Empires Expand 3.2 Empires: Administration

3.1 Empires Expand 3.2 Empires: Administration

Land Based Empires 3.1 Empires Expand 3.2 Empires: Administration Empires Expand Topic 3.1 Learning Objective Explain how and

why various landbased empires developed and expanded from 1450 to 1750. Questions What states do you need to know

in this Question What technology finally stops the steppe nomad? Historical Developments Imperial expansion

relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons, and armed trade to establish large empires in both hemispheres. Historical Developments Land empires included

the Manchu in Central and East Asia; the Mughal in South and Central Asia; the Ottoman in Southern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa; and the Safavids in the Middle East.

Historical Developments Political and religious disputes led to rivalries and conflict between states. Question

What are some examples of religious conflict in this time period? 1. A ton of big new land empires pop up in this period. 2. You need to know: Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals, Manchu Dynasty (Qing), Russian Empire. 3. Also, dont forget about the Incas and Aztecs. They are destroyed early on, but they still count.

4. This section wants you to know about their expansions so know their beginnings. 5. These are the big empires that will last for many units going forward. Dont skip this section. Need to Know Empires Dar al Islam Europe Russia East Asia

Ming / Qing Dynasty Tokugawa Ottoman Empire Safavid Empire Mughal Empire Songhai America

Aztecs Incas MAP MAKING Making the Russian Empire Russian state centered on the city of Moscow Conquered a number of neighboring

Russian-speaking cities Continued to expand south and east of Moscow Brought together a wide variety of different peoples and cultures Making the Russian Empire Motivations for Russian

Expansion Motivation #1 = security from the nomadic pastoral peoples Lived in the grasslands south and east of the Russian heartland Russians = afraid one of these groups will rise to power like

the Mongols These nomads frequently raided Russias neighbors and sold many of them into slavery Motivations for Russian Expansion Motivation #2 = Pelts of fur-bearing animals To the east across the vast expanse of Siberia

Very valuable and indemand item Nickname = soft gold Russian Point of View To Russians, their empire meant: Defending the Russian

frontiers Enhancing the power of the Russian state Bringing Christianity, civilization, and enlightenment to savages Life in the Russian Empire

Everyone had to swear an oath of allegiance to the grand tsar Everyone had to pay yasak = tribute paid in cash or valuable goods New diseases

accompanied Russian conquest ex: smallpox and measles Ivan the Terrible Tsar of Russia (15331584) Life in the Russian Empire

Huge influx of Russian settlers to conquered territories within the empire Began to outnumber the native peoples Ex: By 1720 = population of Siberia = 70% Russian and 30% native Siberian Life in the Russian

Empire Native peoples were Russified = adopted the Russian language and culture, converted to Christianity, gave up their traditional hunting & gathering lifestyle, etc.

Impact on the Environment Loss of hunting ground and pasturelands to Russian agricultural settlers Result = native peoples became dependent on Russian

markets for crops and luxury goods The Russian Empire By the 18th century = Russia became one of the great powers of Europe Power stemmed from wealth found in: rich agricultural lands, valuable furs, and mineral deposits Russia became a highly militarized state as

well Russian Empire stayed intact until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 The Russian Empire Established a tradition of autocratic government with a powerful monarchy Belief = only a strong

ruler could hold together such a large empire with such a diverse population Ruled by monarchies until the early 1900s Peter the Great Reign: 1682 - 1725

Russian Empire vs. those of other Western European Countries Russian Empire Other Europeans Acquired territories next to them that they had been in contact with for a long time Acquired territories at the

same time that a Russian state was taking shape Russia was an empire. Acquired territories far away from them that they didnt know about until 1492 Acquired overseas empires AFTER establishing themselves as solid European states

The British had an empire. Making China an Empire Done by the Qing (aka Manchu) Dynasty Ruled from 1644 to 1912 Foreigners invaders from

Manchuria Enlarged the size of China and incorporated a lot of non-Chinese peoples as they expanded to the north and west Qing Rulers: Cultural Elements Maintained

Ethnic distinctiveness forbade intermarriage between themselves and native Chinese Adopted Chinese language

Confucian teachings Chinese government techniques Making China an Empire: Motivations Major motivation = security concerns

To China = expansion was viewed as a defensive necessity Result = Qing dynasty China undertook an 80year military effort (16801760) to bring together surrounding regions under Chinese control Life in the Chinese Empire

In general the Qing rulers: Showed respect for other cultures Did not force people to assimilate to Chinese culture

Chinese settlers did not flood the other regions of the empire Yizhu = 8th Emperor of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty

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