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Moore Family Centerfor Whole Grain Foods, Nutrition & Preventive HealthNutrition and Health UpdatePlenary SessionSiew Sun Wong, PhDAssistant Professor and Extension Nutrition Specialist2:15‐3:00 PMUsing Technology to Promote HealthyEating in Our Youth

AcknowledgementVideo ProducerHeather TurnerOSU College of Public Health and Human SciencesMultimedia Communication Specialist

Scope and DefinitionUsing Technology to Promote Healthy Eating in Our YouthTechnologyHealthy EatingThe methods andInvolvestools that a society moderation,has developed inbalance, and variety.order to facilitatethe solution of itsBut it doesn’tpractical problems.matter now.YouthAdolescent YoungAdulthood(Croll, 2001)(Ologies and Isms Thematic Dictionary)Ages 12‐24(Modell & Goodman, 1990) Ages 18‐22(Kenniston, 1970)Health and fitnesstechnology

OutlineQ&A (10)EmergingResearch &Application (5)Intro (5)Research &Application (15)Overview (10)A. Overview of Evolution in Health and Fitness TechnologyB. Related Research and ApplicationsC. Emerging Research and ApplicationsD. Question and Answer

A. Evolution In Health And Fitness Technology1920s: Refrigerator1950s: Home‐use microwave oven1970s: Personal computer, hand‐held mobile phone, video gamesreached mainstream popularity1980s:@Palmtop1990s: WorldWideWeb, Bluetooth, Google2000s: Wikipedia (2001), Facebook (2003),Second Life (2003), YouTube (2005),My Fitness Pal (2005), iPhones (2007)Open Sim (2007), Android (2008),

A. Evolution In Health And Fitness Technology2011: USDA MyPyramid Tracker2013: USDA SuperTracker Food Tracker

Fork to Health Outcome

B. Related Research and ApplicationsSchool‐Based Interventions(5)Afterschool and Camp‐BasedInterventions (2)Home‐Based Intervention(1)Medical Setting Intervention(1)(Whiteley 2008)

B. Related Research and ApplicationsSchool‐Based Interventions (5)ApproachSample sizeIntervention(intervention Period/control)Winett, 1999Eat 4 LifeWeb‐basedlearning modules103/77Reed, 2002Clueless inthe MallScavenger huntgame148Frenn, 2005Web 4 videos(2‐3 min each)Long, 2004Web ClassroomLong, 2006WebTheory45 min/weekfor 5 weeksSocial CognitiveTheory50 minsPrecede‐ProceedHealth EducationPlanning Model43/608 x 45 min in 1monthHealth Promotion,Trans‐TheoreticalModel63/555hr Web 10hr Social Cognitiveclassroom in 1Theorymonth215hr over 3weeks‐ none ‐

B. Related Research and Applications(School‐Based Intv.)Winett, 1999Reed, 2002Frenn, 2005 Long, 2004 Long, 2006Regular meals (freq) no changeFruit intake no changeno changeVeg intake no changeno changeSoda intake no changeno change Fat intakeCa knowledge Ca attitude Dietary knowledge Self‐efficacy foreating adeq. Fruit Self‐efficacy foreating adeq. Veg Self‐efficacy forlower fat intake

B. Related Research and Applications(School‐Based Intv.)Winett, 1999Lack of controlgroupNonrandomizedassignment togroupsXReed, 2002Frenn, 2005 Long, 2004 Long, 2006XXXXXXXUse of self‐reportmeasures onlyXShort interventionperiodXLack of follow‐upXXX

B. Related Research and ApplicationsMobile Phone‐Based Game(Pollack, 2010)Target audience: 7th and 8th graders (n 53)Location: A rural middle school in upstate NYDuration: 1 monthMethod: Take care of a virtual pet using an iPhone to trackdaily breakfast intake and quality.Results: Intervention group ate a healthy breakfast 52% ofthe time. Control group ate a healthy breakfast only 20%of the time. No gender effect. Players needed and –feedbacks from their virtual pet.

MobilePhone‐BasedGame:Time To Eat(Pollack, 2010)

B. Related Research and ApplicationsScaling Up: Provide incremental rewardsSocial:Chat, competition between peers, ability to viewand comment on another’s pet.Game level: Increases with pet’s interaction capabilities (e.g.,play fetch, walk pet, bathe pet) Unlocks certain items (e.g., after eating 3 healthybalanced meals, a player could unlock a newoutfit for the pet or choose a new toy for it)

B. Related Research and ApplicationsScaling Up: Provide incremental rewardsEfficiency for immediate feedback:Let peers rate each other’s breakfast quality; AI todetect food and portion size.Geotagging:Place ‘What Where When’ on the map revealeating habits and problem areas strengthentailored prompts/warnings/recommendations.(Pollack, 2010)

Evolution of New MediaCategoryEnvironmentLevel of EmbodimentText ChatTextual onlyOn screen text displaysAudio ChatAudioVoice and iconText MUDS and MOOSTextual onlyOn screen text displaysPictorial socialenvironment2D pictorial environmentsand textUser represented by 2D avatar3D Networked3D interactive virtualenvironmentUser represented by 3D avatarwith various levels of expressivecapabilityHighly immersivenetworked virtualenvironmentsBody surrounding 3D virtualenvironmentsAvatar and user’s body occupysame position in space. Naturalbody motion as input andimmersive displays(Biocca, 2000)

Better Eating Starts Today(B.E.S.T.) Project

Source: of‐the‐mobile‐data‐lovers 50f56200a91ce w1138.jpg

Virtual care beyond hospitals

Smart Refrigerator2013Barcode /ovenSource: ppliances.aspx

20133D Food Printer3D Printed Flute

C. Emerging Research and ApplicationsOpportunities and Challengesfrom paper to electronicMobile Health advancementResearch advancement

C. Emerging Research and ApplicationsReal‐world experience converging with virtual‐world experience.ResearchEducation

C. Emerging Research and ApplicationsNew Trend: The Data Will Follow YouSoLoMoSocial – Local ‐ MobileInteroperabilityLinked health recordsSeamless/mindless trackingJust check‐in

C. Emerging Research and ApplicationsNew Trend: The Data Will Follow YouGoal settingDon’t just ‘meet’ the goal, ‘crush’ it!Personal touchNurse follows up with a phone call; tailoredmessage to current location, calendar, socialnetwork in proximity, habits and preferences

C. Emerging Research and ApplicationsRecommendations for future interventions:1. Adequate sample size2. Randomized designs3. Objective measures4. Males and females5. Health disparity youth6. Longer intervention period7. Theory‐based skill building8. Real‐world virtual world9. Involvement of parents/caretakers10.Innovative engagement to sustain interest(Whiteley 2008)

D. Question and AnswerPhoto Source

ReferencesBiocca F. New media technology and youth: trends in the evolution of new media. Journal ofAdolescent Health 2000;27S:22‐29.Croll JK, Neumark‐Sztainer D, Story M. Healthy eating: what does it mean to adolescents?JNEB 2001;33:193‐198.Kenniston K. Youth: A “new” stage of life. American Scholar 1970;39:631‐641.Modell J, Goodman M. Historical Perspectives. In Feldman S and Elliot G (Eds.), At thethreshold: The developing adolescent. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990; 93‐122.Pollak JP et al. It’s Time to Eat! Using mobile games to promote healthy eating. IEEEPersuasive Computing 2010; 21‐27.Thai AM et al. Game changer: investing in digital play to advance children’s learning andhealth. 2009. Available at ploads/2010/03/game changer final 1 .pdf.Whiteley et al. State of the art reviews: Using the internet to promote physical activity andhealthy eating in youth. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 2008; 2(2):159‐177.