Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 5adaptationa characteristic of an organism that increases its chance of survivalin its environmentatmospherethe layers of gas that surround Earth, other planets, or starsatomthe smallest unit of a chemical element that can still retain theproperties of that elementaxisthe imaginary line on which an object rotates (e.g., Earth’s axis runsthrough Earth between the North Pole and the South Pole); animaginary straight line that runs through a body; a reference to theline in a coordinate system or graphcarnivorean animal or plant that consumes or obtains nutrients from animalschange of statea physical change that occurs when matter changes to another state(i.e., liquid, gas, or solid)chemical changea reaction or a change in a substance produced by chemical meansthat results in producing a different chemicalcommunityall the populations of organisms belonging to different species andsharing the same geographical areacompounda substance made up of a combination of two or more elements heldtogether by chemical bonds that cannot be separated by physicalmeans; has properties unlike those of the elements that make up thecompoundcondensationthe process of changing from a gas (i.e., water vapor) to a liquid(i.e., dew); the act of making more dense or compactconservationcontrolled use and/or maintenance of natural resources; variousefforts to preserve or protect natural resourcesconstellationa star pattern identified and named as a definite group; usuallythought of as forming certain shapes or figures in a specific regionof the skyconsumeran organism that feeds on other organisms for fooddecomposerany organism that feeds or obtains nutrients by breaking downorganic matter from dead organismsD1DRAFT, December 2002, Florida Department of Education

Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 5densityconcentration of matter of an object; number of individuals in thesame species that live in a given area; the mass per unit volume of asubstance in a given areadepositionlayering matter in a natural processearthquakethe shaking of the ground caused by a sudden release of energy inEarth’s crustecosysteman integrated unit of a biological community, its physicalenvironment, and interactionselementa substance that cannot be reduced to a simpler substance bychemical meansenergya quantity that describes the capacity to do work; a source of usablepowerenergy pyramida pyramidal diagram that compares the amount of energy availableat each position, or level, in the feeding orderenergy transfera change of energy from one form to another (e.g., mechanical toelectrical, solar to electrical)environmentthe sum of conditions affecting an organism, including all living andnonliving things in an area, such as plants, animals, water, soil,weather, landforms, and airequatoran imaginary circle around Earth’s surface located between the polesand a plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation that divides it into theNorthern and Southern Hemisphereserosionthe wearing away of Earth’s surface by the breakdown andtransportation of rock and soilevaporationthe process by which a liquid is converted to its vapor phase byheating the liquidexperimenta procedure that is carried out and repeated under controlledconditions in order to discover, demonstrate, or test a hypothesis;includes all components of the scientific methodfood chaintransfer of energy through various stages as a result of feedingpatterns of a series of organismsD2DRAFT, December 2002, Florida Department of Education

Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 5food web (food cycle)the interconnected feeding relationships in a food chain found in aparticular place and timeforcea quality that tends to produce movement or acceleration of a body inthe direction of its application; a push or pullfossila whole or part of a plant or animal that has been preserved insedimentary rockfrictiona force that opposes the relative motion of two material surfaces incontact with one anotherfulcrumthe pivot point of a levergalaxya large collection of stars, gases, and dust that are part of the universe(e.g., the Milky Way galaxy) bound together by gravitational forcesgasone of the fundamental states of matter in which the molecules donot have a fixed volume or shapegravitationa force of attraction between two massesgravitythe observed effect of the force of gravitationhabitata place in an ecosystem where an organism normally livesheata form of energy resulting from the temperature difference between asystem and its surroundingsherbivorean animal that feeds on plantsigneous rocka type of rock that forms from molten or partly molten material thatcools and hardensinclined planea type of simple machine; a slanted surface that makes it easier tomove a mass from a lower point to a higher pointinertiathe property of a body, due to its mass, that causes it to resist anychange in its motion unless overcome by a forceinvestigationa procedure that is carried out in order to observe a response causedby a stimulus; not a complete experimentkinetic energythe energy possessed by a body because of its motionD3DRAFT, December 2002, Florida Department of Education

Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 5levera type of simple machine; consists of a rigid bar that pivots about afulcrum, used to transmit and enhance power or motionlife cyclethe entire sequence of events in an organism’s growth anddevelopmentlightelectromagnetic radiation that lies within the visible rangeliquidone of the fundamental states of matter with a definite volume but nodefinite shapemagnetichaving the property of attracting iron and certain other materials byvirtue of a surrounding field of forcemassthe amount of matter an object containsmattera solid, liquid, or gas that possesses inertia and is capable ofoccupying spacemetamorphic rocka type of rock that forms from existing rock because of extremechanges caused by heat, pressure, or chemical environmentsmicroscopicrelating to an object too small to be visible without the use of amicroscopemixturethe product of a thorough blending of two or more substances, notchemically combinedmoona natural satellite that revolves around a planetmoon phasea phrase that indicates the fraction of the Moon’s disc that isilluminated (as seen from Earth); the eight moon phases (in order):new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, fullmoon, waning gibbous, last quarter, waning crescentnonrenewable resource a resource that can only be replenished over millions of yearsorgana structure containing different tissues that are organized to carry outa specific function of the body (e.g., heart, lungs, brain, etc.)organismany living plant, animal, or fungus that maintains various vitalprocesses necessary for lifephotosynthesisa chemical process by which plants trap light energy to convertcarbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates (sugars)D4DRAFT, December 2002, Florida Department of Education

Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 5physical changea reaction; a change in matter from one form to another, withoutforming new substancesplaneta large body in space that orbits a star and does not produce light ofits ownpollutionany alteration of the natural environment producing a conditionharmful to living organisms; may occur naturally or as a result ofhuman activitiespopulationa group of organisms of the same species living in a specificgeographical areapotential energythe energy an object has because of its position or structure; storedenergypredatoran organism that preys on and consumes animals; usually an animalpreyan organism caught or hunted for food by another organismproduceran organism that makes its own food from the environment; usually agreen plantprotistunicellular organisms belonging to the kingdom Protistapulleya type of simple machine; a circular lever, usually a wheel with agroove where a rope can be placed and used to change the directionof a forcereflectionthe bouncing off or turning back of light, sound, or heat from asurfacerefractiona change in the direction of a wave that occurs as it passes from onemedium to another of different densityrenewable resourcea resource that is replaced or restored, as it is used, by naturalprocesses in a reasonable amount of timeresourceany material that can be used to satisfy a needscientific methoda plan of inquiry that uses science process skills as tools to gather,organize, analyze, and communicate informationsedimentary rockrock formed from layers of sediment that overlay and squeezetogether or are chemically combinedD5DRAFT, December 2002, Florida Department of Education

Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 5solar systema star and all the planets and other bodies that orbit it; the region inspace where these bodies movesolidhaving a definite shape and a definite volume; one of thefundamental states of mattersolutiona mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughouta single phasestara large, gaseous, self-luminous body held together by gravity andpowered by thermonuclear reactionsSunthe closest star to Earth and the center of our solar systemsystema set of objects, organisms, or different parts acting to form a wholetissuesimilar cells acting to perform a specific function; four basic types oftissue are muscle, connective, nerve, and epidermaltopographythe surface, shape, and composition of a land areauniversethe total sum of all matter and energy that existsvolcanoa vent or fissure in Earth’s surface through which magma and itsassociated materials are expelled; generally a mountain-like structurevolumea measure of the amount of space an object takes up; also theloudness of a sound or signalwater cyclethe path water takes as it is being cycled through the environment,including condensation, evaporation, and precipitationweatheringthe natural processes that break down and change rock into soil,sand, and other materials; differs from erosion in that notransportation of those materials takes placewheel and axlea type of simple machine; a circular frame or disk revolving around acentral axisD6DRAFT, December 2002, Florida Department of Education

Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 8(A knowledge of the terms in the Grade 5 glossary is assumed.)abiotican environmental factor not associated with the activities of livingorganismsaccelerationrate of change in velocity, usually expressed in meters per second;involves an increase or decrease in speed and/or a change in directionair resistanceforce of air on moving objectsalleleany of two or more alternate forms of a gene that an organism mayhave for a particular traitamplitudein any periodic function (e.g., a wave) the maximum absolutevariation of the functionasexual reproductiona form of reproduction in which new individuals are formed withoutthe involvement of gametesbiodiversitythe existence of a wide range of different species in a given area orspecific period of timebioticfactors in an environment relating to, caused by, or produced byliving organismscalorieunit of energy; the amount of heat needed to raise one gram of waterone degree Celsius at standard atmospheric pressurechemical weatheringthe breakdown and alteration of rocks at or near Earth’s surface as aresult of chemical processescircuitan interconnection of electrical elements forming a complete path forthe flow of currentconductionthe transmission of heat through a medium and without the motion ofthe mediumconservation of energya fundamental principle stating energy cannot be created nordestroyed but only changed from one form to anotherconvectionheat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents from oneregion to anothercrestthe peak or highest point on a waveD7DRAFT, December 2002, Florida Department of Education

Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 8(A knowledge of the terms in the Grade 5 glossary is assumed.)crustoutermost layer of Earth covering the mantledependent variablefactor being measured or observed in an experimentdepositionthe process by which sediment is carried by forces (e.g., wind, rain,or water currents) and left in a certain areadiffractionthe change in direction of a wave caused by passing by an obstacle ortraveling through an openingdominancetendency of certain (dominant) alleles to mask the expression of theircorresponding (recessive) allelesecosysteman ecological community, together with its environment, functioningas a unitefficiencythe relative effectiveness of a system or device determined bycomparing input and outputelectromagneticradiationthe emission and propagation of the entire range of electromagneticspectrum including: gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet radiation, visiblelight, microwaves, and radio waveselectrona stable elementary particle that is negatively charged and orbits thenucleus of an atomentropya measure of randomness or disorder of a closed systemerosiona combination of natural processes in which materials from Earth’ssurface are loosened, dissolved, or worn away and transported fromone place to anotherfossil fuelsthe remains of animal or plant life from past geologic ages that arenow in a form suitable for use as a fuel (e.g., oil, coal, or natural gas)frequencythe number of cycles or waves per unit timegenea specific part of a chromosome or sequence of DNA that determinesa particular feature or characteristic in an organismheterozygouscell or organism that has two different alleles for a particular traitD8DRAFT, December 2002, Florida Department of Education

Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 8(A knowledge of the terms in the Grade 5 glossary is assumed.)homozygouscell or organism that has identical rather than different alleles for aparticular traitindependent variablethe factor that is changed in an experiment in order to study changesin the dependent variableinertiathe property of an object, due to its mass, by which it resists anychange in its position unless overcome by forcemagnetic fieldthe region where magnetic force exists around magnets or electriccurrentsmassthe amount of matter an object containsmeiosisthe process of nuclear division in cells during which the number ofchromosomes is reduced by halfmitosisa process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells during which thenucleus of a cell divides into two nuclei, each with the same numberof chromosomesneap tidea twice-monthly tide of minimal range that occurs when the Sun,Moon, and Earth are at right angles to each other, thus decreasing thetotal tidal force exerted on Earthneutrala particle, object, or system that lacks a net chargeneutrona subatomic particle having zero charge, found in the nucleus of anatomnucleusthe center region of an atom where protons and neutrons are located;also a cell structure that contains the cell’s genetic materialocean basina depression on the surface of Earth occupied by waterplate tectonicstheory of global dynamics in which Earth’s crust is divided into asmaller number of large, rigid plates whose movements causeseismic activity along their borderspotential energyenergy stored in an object due to the object’s configuration andpositionpressurethe force exerted per unit areaD9DRAFT, December 2002, Florida Department of Education

Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 8(A knowledge of the terms in the Grade 5 glossary is assumed.)prisma piece of glass with polished plane surfaces that disperses a beam ofwhite light into its component colorsprotona subatomic particle having a positive charge and which is found inthe nucleus of an atomPunnett squarea graphic checkboard used to determine results from a particulargenetic crossradiationemission of energy in the form of rays or wavesrecessivean allele for a trait that will be masked unless the organism ishomozygous for this traitscrewa type of simple machine that consists of an inclined plane wrappedaround a cylindersexual reproductionreproduction involving the union of gametes producing an offspringwith traits from both parentsspectroscopean instrument that uses a prism to separate and catalog lightwavelengthsspeedamount of distance traveled divided by time taken; the time-rate atwhich any physical process takes placespring tidethe tide of increased range that occurs twice monthly at the new andfull phases of the Moonthermal energyinternal energy found by adding the kinetic energy of particlesmaking up a substancetropismthe motion of an organism or part of an organism toward or awayfrom an external stimulustroughthe lowest point on a wavevariablean event, condition, or factor that can be changed or controlled inorder to study or test a hypothesis in a scientific experimentvelocitythe time-rate at which a body changes its position; defined asdisplacement divided by the time of travelD10DRAFT, December 2002, Florida Department of Education

Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 8(A knowledge of the terms in the Grade 5 glossary is assumed.)vibrationa repetitive movement around an equilibrium pointvirusa noncellular, disease-causing particle that uses the genetic materialfrom its host to reproducewavelengththe distance between crests of a wavewedgea type of simple machine that consists of an inclined plane used toseparate two objectswheel and axlea type of simple machine that consists of a rod driven through thecenter of a cylinder that is allowed to rotate freely, yielding amechanical advantage equal to the cylinder’s diameterD11DRAFT, December 2002, Florida Department of Education

Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 10(A knowledge of the terms in the Grade 5 and Grade 8 glossaries is assumed.)accuracythe extent to which a measurement is in proximity to thestandard or expected valueacida substance that increases the H concentration when added to awater solutionactivation energythe least amount of energy required to start a particularchemical reactionadaptationa particular development, behavior, or physiological change ina population of organisms, in response to changes in thepopulationsamino acidsan organic molecule containing an amino (-NH2) and acarboxyl (-COOH) group from which proteins are synthesizedaqueousa solution containing waterastronomical unitthe average distance from Earth to the Sun, approximately 150million kilometersatomic numberthe number of protons in an atom’s nucleus; the atomic numberdetermines an element’s placement on the periodic tablebasea substance that increases the OH– concentration of a solution;a proton acceptorbiomea complex biotic community characterized by the interaction ofliving organisms and climatic factorscatalysta substance that speeds up or slows down the rate of a reactionwithout being consumed or alteredcentrifugalthe motion away from center or axiscentripetal forcethe force on an object required to keep this object on a circularpath, pulling toward the center of the circlecompounda substance made up of at least two different elements heldtogether by chemical bonds that can only be broken down intoelements by chemical processesconcentrationthe relative amount of a particular substance, a solute, ormixtureD12DRAFT, December 2002, Florida Department of Education

Appendix DFCAT Science GlossaryGrade 10(A knowledge of the terms in the Grade 5 and Grade 8 glossaries is assumed.)conservation of massthe principle that mass cannot be created or destroyed; alsoconservation of matterconvergent boundaryarea where two tectonic plates collidecovalent bonda chemical bond between two atoms of the same or differentelements in which each atom shares an electrondiffractionthe bending of a wave around an obstructionDNAa nucleic acid that carries genetic material; present in allcellular organismselectromagneta magnet consisting of a coil of wire wrapped around a corethat becomes strongly magnetized when current flows throughthe coil producing a magnetic fieldelectromagnetic waveswaves generated by the oscillation of a charged particle andcharacterized by periodic variations of electric and magneticfieldsfaulta rock fracture along which move