Written Examination Study Guidefor the rank ofLieutenantin theCity of Buffalo Police DepartmentCopyright 2017, IOS, Inc.Copyright 2017, IOS, Inc. BPD Lieutenant WE1

Table of ContentsTable of Contents .2Welcome! .4Contents of This Guide .6The Job-Knowledge Examination .7Format of the Job-Knowledge Examination .7General Study Guidelines .9Importance of Reading the Study Material .9Note Taking or Other Documentation Techniques . 9Study with a Partner/Group . 10Answer Practice Questions . 10Study the Material . 11Keeping Organized. 11Scheduling . 12Individual Study. 13Developing a Study Plan. 13Goal Setting . 14SQ3R Study Method . 14Memorization . 15One-On-One Studying . 16Study Techniques . 16Things to Keep In Mind . 16Group Study. 17Characteristics of Effective Study Groups . 17Starting a Study Group: The first meeting . 17Copyright 2017, IOS, Inc. BPD Lieutenant WE2

Conducting the Study Group . 18Additional Study Tips . 19General Test-taking Strategies. 20Using the Test Answer Sheet . 22Helpful Hints about the Exam . 23Preparing for Test Day . 24Preparation for the exam . 24Your physical well-being . 24Arrive early . 24Confidence. 24Attitude . 24Basic Rules Governing the Testing Process . 25Copyright 2017, IOS, Inc. BPD Lieutenant WE3

Welcome!Welcome to the 2017 study guide for the City of Buffalo Police Department.The purpose of this guide is to prepare you for the job-knowledge examination. We highlyrecommend you follow the guidelines and use the preparation tips provided in this guide.Good Luck!Copyright 2017, IOS, Inc. BPD Lieutenant WE4

IntroductionI/O Solutions (IOS) has been retained to develop the sergeant and lieutenant writtenexaminations for the City of Buffalo Police Department. IOS is a public safety consulting firmlocated in the suburban Chicago area. The firm works exclusively with public safety clients(police, fire, sheriff’s departments, correctional facilities, etc.) to develop, validate andimplement promotional and entry-level selection processes. Our clients include the HoustonPolice Department, San Antonio Police Department, Dallas Police and Fire Department, AustinPolice and Fire Department, Buffalo Police and Fire Department, Cincinnati Police and FireDepartment, Indianapolis Metro Police and Indianapolis Fire, Minneapolis Police Department,Omaha Police and Fire Department, St. Louis Metro Police Department, Chicago Police, Fireand Chicago OEMC Department, Milwaukee Fire Department, Nashville Police and Fire, TulsaPolice and Fire Department, Albuquerque Police and Fire Department, Miami PoliceDepartment, Atlanta Police Department, Jacksonville County Police Department, BaltimorePolice and Fire Department, San Diego Police Department, San Francisco Police and FireDepartment, San Jose Fire Department, Raleigh Police Department, Illinois State Police,Massachusetts State Police and many more! IOS has worked with the city of Buffalo forapproximately 10 years in developing promotional testing and entry-level (pre-hire) testing.IOS has several goals in developing written promotional examinations for the City of Buffalo.First and foremost, the examinations must be valid, fair and legally defensible. A validexamination is relevant to the department and position in question, measures the criticalknowledge, skills and abilities necessary for promotion, and aids the department in selectinghighly qualified individuals for promotion. Also, the process should conform to appropriatelegal guidelines regarding the selection and testing of candidates. In addition, the processshould treat all candidates with dignity and respect, and rules should be fairly and equitablyapplied.Copyright 2017, IOS, Inc. BPD Lieutenant WE5

Contents of This GuideThis Orientation and Preparation Guide has been prepared to introduce you to the writtenpromotional examination for the City of Buffalo Police Department. The first thing you can doto prepare for the examination is to read this study guide. This guide will familiarize you withthe written examination process and provide you with general information about subsequentselection hurdles. Following are the sections that this guide will cover: Information on the format and structure of the exam General advice on how to study for the written examination The development of a study plan General preparation guidelines Test-taking principles Use of the answer sheetCopyright 2017, IOS, Inc. BPD Lieutenant WE6

The Job-Knowledge ExaminationThe written job-knowledge examination will likely consist of 100-items that are multiple-choicein nature. Thus, each item will consist of the stem (the actual question) and four responseoptions.Typical sources for such examinations include Department Policy & Procedures, DepartmentOrders, Department Rules and Regulations, external management readings, external lawenforcement readings and other external professional reading (i.e., investigative book fordetectives). We have evaluated job analysis information for the positions in question,considered other law enforcement agencies and their approach to promotional testing (i.e.,benchmarking) and considered past practices to help identify the written job-knowledgesources (e.g., specific policies, procedures, etc.) and develop the written examination items. Thedraft item pool may be reviewed with SMEs or I/O psychologists with expertise in promotionaltest development for large law enforcement agencies to ensure the examination and content isspecific to the Buffalo Police Department.Format of the Job-Knowledge ExaminationA job-knowledge exam consists of questions/items that are based on pre-specified resourcematerials; they cover material that is deemed important to successful performance on the job.For more information regarding the pre-specified resource materials for your examination,please refer to the official reading list supplied by your department. Nearly all IOSexaminations are closed-book and this examination will be closed book as well. Job-knowledgeitems are typically constructed in a multiple-choice format. In the case of this exam, this meansthat there is one correct answer option and three incorrect answer options. Your goal is toselect the correct response from the four possible options.The following is an example of a job-knowledge item. This item was taken from a previous jobknowledge examination and is presented as an “example item” to help you better understandthe basic structure of the examination:1.Eyewitness identification and description are regarded to be the most form ofevidence due to the fact that human perception and memory are functions.a.b.c.d.reliable; selectiveaccurate; constructivevalid; focusedunreliable; selectiveCopyright 2017, IOS, Inc. BPD Lieutenant WE7

Answer:Eyewitness descriptions are not considered to be very reliable forms of evidence in criminalproceedings. If you know that eyewitness descriptions are unreliable, you have a good chanceof answering this question correctly. In order to fill in the first blank, you must find a word thatindicates that eyewitness descriptions are unreliable, inaccurate or “flawed.” You canimmediately eliminate answer options “a,” “b” and “c” because these imply the oppositeconcerning the reliability of eyewitness descriptions. You are left with answer option “d,”which indicates that eyewitness descriptions are “unreliable” and that this is caused by“selective” memory functions. This answer makes the most sense and (most importantly) is theonly truly correct answer according to the pre-specified source material. Therefore, D is thecorrect answer.Copyright 2017, IOS, Inc. BPD Lieutenant WE8

General Study GuidelinesAs alluded to previously, it will be absolutely necessary to thoroughly read and review allexamination source materials and study for the examination to increase your chances ofperforming well. There are many proven methods of study that can enhance your performancewhen applied appropriately. It should be noted that different methods work better for certainindividuals. The following provides a few brief suggestions on methods of preparation for theexam.Importance of Reading the Study MaterialIt is critical for candidates to read all of the study material thoroughly. One goal in the testdevelopment process is to identify the relevant job knowledge someone needs uponpromotion. Therefore, this study material was chosen by subject matter experts within yourdepartment to target important job-knowledge areas associated with successful performance.Subsequently, IOS develops all examination questions directly from the identified sourcematerial. Thus, becoming familiar with the source material can significantly improve your examscore.Many candidates simply fail to read (or study) the examination material and conduct little or nopreparation for the written examination. IOS has conducted extensive research on therelationship between candidate study habits and test performance. The single greatest factorimpacting candidate performance is examination preparation. In particular, simply reading thesources has a substantial impact on test performance. In our research, candidates who simplyread the examination sources pass the examination (when a cut score is utilized) at a rate of80%. In contrast, those candidates who fail to read the source material pass at a rate of 30%.Simply reading the examination material can put you in a position to be promoted depending onthe specifics of your promotional process!Note Taking or Other Documentation TechniquesMany individuals find it helpful to take notes on the important material during the course oftheir reading. With this method, you can put the author’s ideas into your own words, whichwill be easier for you to recall at a later date. Another similar study method involves making“flashcards” on 3” x 5” note cards. The goal of either method is to condense the amount ofreading material to the most important and relevant aspects of the source. Also, your goalshould be to make this material understandable in your own words. For example, read asection of policy/orders (e.g.) and take some time to decipher the meaning of the code. Then,in your own words, explain the nature and meaning of the policy/order in your notes orflashcards. With either method, you should be prepared to spend some time studying the notesor flashcards in the weeks prior to the exam.When reading the source materials, you may also want to highlight information that you think isparticularly important with a highlighter/marker. Later, as the exam date approaches, you canreview the highlighted material. If done properly, this method could supplant note taking andwill take far less time than preparing notes or flash cards.Copyright 2017, IOS, Inc. BPD Lieutenant WE9

Study with a Partner/GroupMany individuals find it helpful to study with a partner or group of individuals who are alsopreparing for the exam. This way you can discuss the material with them, determine what themost important material is and analyze difficult concepts. In addition, study groups can divideduties and prepare brief summaries on the reading material to share with other groupmembers. You might try preparing brief summaries or having various group members describea particular issue or section of the reading material in an informal presentation. Explaining anddescribing material to others is a great way to learn the material yourself!If you have found that you study most effectively by yourself in the past, then try to limit theamount of time you will spend studying with a partner or group. If on the other hand you havefound that studying with others helps you quite a bit, then form a study group with otherpeople who are taking the same examination as you. You may find that forming a study grouphas another important benefit—your commitment to studying may increase (you do not wantto let your team down) and thus you may be more focused and motivated in your efforts!More information about studying with a partner or group is provided below.Answer Practice QuestionsIf a practice test is available on a particular subject, you should take the time to complete it. Ifthere is not one available, there are several other methods of preparation to help you inanswering exam questions. First, if the source material has “questions for review” at the end ofeach chapter (e.g., if using a textbook), you should try to answer these questions immediatelyafter reading the material. In addition, once you have completed a section of material, you canreview the material and try to determine what questions might be asked of you on anexamination. You should be able to answer these questions once you have read the material.If you have assembled a study group, you can prepare practice questions as part of your groupefforts. There is no need to focus on the specifics of item construction. You can simply createbasic test questions with a single correct answer and multiple response options. Most of theexamination questions will follow this basic structure. If your study group has divided up thetest content for analysis, you can ask individuals to develop practice questions for their area offocus.This study guide also contains a brief set of practice questions in Appendix A. You shouldcertainly attempt to answer the questions. It might be prudent to attempt to answer thequestions before you begin studying for the exam. You can then document your score. Then,in the final stages of examination preparation, you should take this brief practice test again tosee if your performance has improved.Copyright 2017, IOS, Inc. BPD Lieutenant WE10

Study the MaterialThis may seem rather evident, but there are two steps to studying. First, you must read thematerial. Then, you must review the material at a later time. While we often call the entireprocess “studying”, this review phase is really at the heart of the study period. This mayinvolve reviewing notes, highlighted portions of the material, creating and reviewing flashcards,conducting group study sessions or completely re-reading the source. Regardless, there shouldbe at least one review of the material to gain understanding and help with recall when theactual test occurs. It may go without saying, but if you spend time taking notes, makingflashcards or highlighting during your initial reading/study phase, you should then spend timereviewing this material before the exam. For example, if you choose to highlight importantmaterial from the text, you should spend some time the week before the exam reviewing thehighlighted passages. This may involve reading the highlighted sections several times.One common mistake that occurs on occasion results when candidates spend a great deal oftime preparing notes or flash cards and then misallocate their preparation time and do notallow enough time to review this important material. You should look at the development ofthese materials as an investment. You must allow for time at the end of the study period torecoup the cost of your investment (i.e., your time) such that you spend time reviewing thisimportant material.Keeping OrganizedOnce all of the suggested materials have been collected, you will have a lot of information tosift through. In order to keep track of all of these materials, organization will be key.To help with organization, follow these guidelines. They will help you compile the informationinto meaningful groups.1. Put all the materials in front of you and begin separating them by t