Transcription

PARTSOFSpeechSPEECHPart tionInterjectionDeterminersSAJID IQBAL KHAN

First edition, 2020Copyrights 2020, literaryenglish.com, S K com***************BySAJID Iqbal [email protected]***************Edited byJavaria [email protected]

Table of contentChapterContentPage1Parts of rminer69

Parts of SpeechChapter 1Parts of SpeechWhat are parts of speech?Every language consists on its basicelements that are called words. As a building ismade by bricks; language is made by words. Firstwe will know about a word.A word is a speech sound or a combinationof sound having a particular meaning for an idea,object or thought and has a spoken or written form.In English language word is composed by anindividual letter (e.g., ‘I’), I am a boy, or bycombination of letters (e.g., Jam, name of a person)Jam is a boy. Morphology, a branch of linguistics,deals with the structure of words where we learnunder which rules new words are formed, how weassigned a meaning to a word? How a wordfunctions in a proper context? How to spell a word?etc.Some different examples are: Boy, kite, fox,mobile phone, nature, etc.There are nine parts of speech in the Englishgrammar: noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, ww.literaryenglish.comPage 2

Parts of Speechdeterminers. Some writes and websites count onlyeight parts of speech and place determiner under thecategory of adjectives. However, advance studiescount determiner as a separate parts of speech.These nine parts of speech indicate how the wordsfunction within the sentence. An individual wordmay function as more than one part of speech whenused in various sentences.Here are the nine parts of speech in ermineswww.literaryenglish.comPage 3

Parts of SpeechChapter 2NounWhat is a noun?A noun is a word used for a place, person, orthing. Everything which has a name and we talkabout it is a noun. Everything is donated by a nameand that naming word is called a “noun”.Often a noun will be the name for somethingwe can touch (e.g., lamb, pen, table), but sometimesa noun will be the name for something we cannottouch (e.g., happiness, determinism, truth).Some examples of noun:Everything is represented by a word that iscalled a noun. Some of the examples of noun arewritten belowPeople: Ali, boy, singer.Animals: Cat, cow, elephant.Places: Karachi, city, street.Objects: Cup, pencil, book.Qualities: Boldness, sorrow.www.literaryenglish.comPage 4

Parts of SpeechActions: Writing, listening, running.Types of noun:There are many types of noun dependingupon some aspects. One noun may fall in multiplecategories. A common noun may be a countablenoun and at a same time that noun may b a concretee.g., pencil is a common noun it is countable,concrete and as well it is singular noun. Some maintypes of noun are tabulated below.Proper nounA proper noun is the given name of aperson, or a specific place or thing, i.e. its ownname (e.g., Imran, Karachi, and Rover). A propernoun always starts with a capital letter. All days andmonths are proper noun and start with capital letters(e.g. Sunday, March, December). Name of allPerson, name of countries, name of oceans arecounted in category of proper nouns (e.g., Mashal,Pakistan, Atlantic).Common nounA common noun is the word used for a classof person, place, or thing (e.g., person, city, anddog). Common noun are not capitalized unless usedin start of a sentence. There are some exception likewww.literaryenglish.comPage 5

Parts of Speechin poetry where every word of new line iscapitalized. Something that is personified in poetryis also capitalized e.g., “So Nature incites them intheir hearts” ( Prologue- Geoffrey Chaucer)Concrete nounConcrete nouns are the things which we cansee or touch physically. These noun contrast withabstract category of noun. For example: tree,hammer, and pen. We can see them feel them ortouch them. Some time we name it material noun.Abstract nounAbstract nouns are things you cannot see ortouch. Abstract nouns do not have physicalexistence. These nouns are difficult to guess.Sometime learners get confused with abstract nounand adjectives. Abilities and emotions are abstractnoun e.g. bravery, joy, determination etc.Collective nounCollective nouns are words that denotegroups’ collection or multitude of something. Thesenoun are used as singular e.g. team, army, concert.Compound nounCompound nouns are nouns made up ofmore than one word. For example: court-martial,www.literaryenglish.comPage 6

Parts of Speechpickpocket, water bottle. Some compound nounsare two words (e.g., peace pipe), some arehyphenated (e.g., play-off), and some have becomesingle words (e.g., eyeopener). And, many of themare currently transitioning through those stages.Therefore, spelling compound nouns can be anightmare. Some compound nouns form their pluralby adding an s to the principal word, not necessarilyto the end (e.g., brothers-in-law).Countable nounA countable noun is a noun that can becounted in numbers like one pen, two cars withbothasingularandapluralform(e.g., dog/dogs, pie/pies).Uncountable nounAn uncountable noun is a noun without aplural form For example: oxygen, patience. Suchnouns do not include counting. All abstract nounfalls under the uncountable category of nouns.Gerund nounGerunds are nouns that end -ing and thatrepresent actions. Gerunds have verb-likeproperties. But these are used differently in asentence unlike verbs. Gerund noun are modifiedwith adverbs. How to differentiate gerund noun andverb? Look at two exampleswww.literaryenglish.comPage 7

Parts of Speech(a) Ali is singing a song.(b) Ali is fond of singing.In sentence (a) singing is verb as its show actionthat Ali is performing. Verb with -ing are usedfollowed by helping verbs is, am, was, were, etc.But in sentence (b) singing is not an action beingperformed by Ali and not followed by a helpingverb.Gender-specific NounsGender-specific nouns are nouns that aredefinitelymaleorfemale.Forexample: king, vixen, and actress. A blonde is awoman. A blond is a man.Verbal nounVerbal nouns are nouns derived from verbsand do not have verb-like properties (e.g., building,drawing, attack).How to differentiate gerund noun and verbalnoun?To understand difference between gerund nounand verbal noun look at given example.www.literaryenglish.comPage 8

Parts of Speech The ceremonial raising of the flag hasstarted. Raising the flag carefully is much difficult.Like gerunds nouns, verbal nouns are alsoderived from verbs, but, unlike gerunds, they haveno verb-like properties. In above given example, theverbal noun raising is not showing any verb-likequalities. It is not modified by a determiner and anadjective (the and ceremonial) and it requiresa preposition (of) to link it to the flag. In contrast, inthe sentence “raising the flag carefully is muchdifficult,” the word raising (which, despite beingspelled the same, is now a gerund) is showing verblike qualities. More specifically, it is modified withan adverb (carefully).Verbal nouns are usually preceded by a, or,an, or the, and followed by a preposition(e.g., of, in, for). This makes them pretty inefficientfrom a word count perspective. Also, a sentencewith verbal nouns can often sound stuffy.However, verbal nouns can give an air offormality or provide emphasis. So, we should allcare about verbal nouns for two reasons:(1) Replacing verbal nouns with verbs andgerunds will reduce your word count and improvesentence flow.www.literaryenglish.comPage 9

Parts of Speech(2) Sentences featuring pure verbal nouns couldportray you as stuffy (bad) or authoritative (good).Employ them smartly to tune to your needs.www.literaryenglish.comPage 10

Parts of SpeechChapter 3PronounDefinition of pronounPronoun is defined as a word that replaces anoun in a sentence. It takes place of a noun. Readthe paragraph written below.(Jam is a boy of sixteen. Jam is studying in9 class. Jam has two brothers. Jam loves playingfootball. Jam is captain of his team.)thLookataboveparagraph.Thename Jam looks strange in every sentence due torepetition of noun Jam. We replace it with pronounto make a sentence beautiful and easy to avoid wordredundancy. We will replace it with appropriatepronoun and read it again.Jam is a boy of sixteen. He is studying in9 class and has two brothers. He loves playingfootball and he is captain of his team.thTypes of pronounPronouns are categorized into many types.Main types include personal pronoun, possessivepronoun, indefinite pronoun, reflective pronoun,www.literaryenglish.comPage 11

Parts of ogative pronoun, and reflexive pronoun.Personal pronounsPersonal pronouns refer to a person’s name.We use personal pronouns as a substitute for aperson’s name. There are two kinds of personalpronoun: Subjective and objective pronouns.(a) Subjective pronoun: Subjective pronounsreplace the subject in a sentence.Common subjective pronouns are I, we, you,he, she, it, and theyExample: I love watching TV.(b) Objective pronouns: Objective pronounsreplace the object in a sentence.Common objective pronouns are me, us,you, him, her, it, and themExamples: She gave him a present on hisbirthday.Possessive pronounPossessive pronouns are the pronouns thatshow ownership and possession in a sentence. Wecategorize possessive pronoun into two types:www.literaryenglish.comPage 12

Parts of Speech(1) Strong possessive pronoun(2) Weak possessive pronoun.The strong possessive pronouns includeyours mine, his, hers, its, theirs, yours, and ours.They refer back to a noun or noun phrase alreadyused, replacing it to avoid repetition: “I said thatpen was mine.” Strong possessive pronouns aresometime called absolute possessive pronoun.The weak possessive pronouns includeyour, my, her, his, its, their, our, and, your. Theirfunction is as a determiner in front of a noun toexpress whom something belongs to: “I saidthat’s my pen.” Sometime we call them possessiveadjectives.Indefinite pronounIndefinite pronouns refer to something thatin not definite in a sentence, they do not refer toparticular thing or person. We use them when anobject does not need to be specifically identified.There are two main types of indefinitepronoun: Singular indefinite pronoun and pluralindefinite pronoun.(a) Singular Indefinite Pronoun: We usesingular indefinite pronouns for the singularobjects and not for plural.www.literaryenglish.comPage 13

Parts of SpeechSingular indefinite pronouns include:someone, somebody, something, no one,nobody, nothing, everyone, everybody,everything, anybody, another, anyone,each, anything, either, other, one, neither,and much(b) PluralIndefinitePronoun:Pluralindefinite pronouns are used for the pluralobjects and not for singular.Plural indefinite pronouns include many,several, few, others, and both.Relative PronounsA relative pronoun is a pronoun that relatesthe relative clause to another clause withina sentence. In addition, introduces the relativeclause or an adjective clause. In mostly cases it actsas a subject of the relative clause. The mostcommonly used relative pronouns are mentionedbelow.Whom, whoever, whomever, who, that,which and whoseExample in a sentence:She does not know which pack of pencil youwant.www.literaryenglish.comPage 14

Parts of Speech“Which pack of pencil you want” is arelative clause, and the relative pronoun “which”has linked it to the main clause.Intensive PronounsIntensive pronouns emphasize, or intensifynouns and pronouns and we define it asa pronoun thatendsin self or selves. Intensivepronouns place emphasis on its antecedent byreferring back to another noun or pronoun usedearlier in the sentence. An intensive pronoun isapproximately identical to a reflexive pronoun.Intensivepronounsarealsosometimescalled emphatic pronouns.Intensive pronouns are himself, myself,themselves, itself, herself, yourselves, ourselves,and yourself,Example in a sentence:I myself like to sing.Jerry herself is her worst critic.Demonstrative PronounsDemonstrative pronouns are the nouns thattake place of a noun that’s already been mentionedin a sentence. Demonstrative pronouns can bewww.literaryenglish.comPage 15

Parts of Speechsingular or plural. Five main demonstrativepronouns are: these, those, such, this, that,Example in a sentence:These are beautiful.Do not eat that.Interrogative PronounsAn interrogative pronoun often stands forsomething that we are not aware of yet, because weare asking about it. We use these pronounsspecifically to ask questions. These pronouns arespecial because they all start with “Wh”, which isquite easy to remember.Most commonly used interrogative pronounsare whose, what, whom, which, and who.The other words like “whichever” and“whatsoever” are the words that we use asinterrogative pronouns.Wordswith‘wh’ thatarenotinterrogative pronouns. There are many otherwords that start with Wh but they are notinterrogative pronouns. Because they are just wordsthat start with ‘wh’ and are in questions!. “When” isnot an interrogative pronoun neither is “where” nor“why”. Moreover, unlike other pronouns, sometimewww.literaryenglish.comPage 16

Parts of Speechinterrogative pronouns do not have antecedentsbecause you are not yet sure what they really are!Example in a sentence:What is your nickname?Whose pen is this?Whatsoever do you suggest by that?Whom were you talking with last night?Which of these three do you like?Sentence in which ‘wh’ words are notinterrogative pronoun:When do you have to go to gymnasium?He doesn’t know where Ali was living lastweek.Reflexive PronounsReflexive pronouns and intensive pronounsare similar, but the difference between them is thatintensive pronouns are not essential to a sentence’smeaning. Meanwhile, reflexive pronouns are. Inaddition, they are used when the subject and theobject of a sentence refer to the same person orthing. Reflexive pronouns end in -selves or -self.www.literaryenglish.comPage 17

Parts of SpeechReflexive pronouns are: yourself, himself,ourselves, itself, themselves, herself, myself,yourselves.Example in a sentence:She told herself to spend all vacations athome.He bought himself a new phone.What is the difference betweenpronouns and reflexive pronouns?intensiveHere is easy way to differentiatean intensive pronouns and reflexive pronouns.Just remove pronoun from the sentence; if itis an intensive pronoun, the sentence will still makesense. If the sentence no longer makes sense whenthe pronoun is removed, it’s a reflexive pronoun.Reciprocal pronounsA reciprocal pronoun is a pronoun that weuse to identify a feeling or any kind of action that isreciprocated among two or more than two. That iswhy; it always refers to two or more than twowww.literaryenglish.comPage 18

Parts of Speechpersons. For example, Jane is laughing atLizzy and Lizzy is laughing at Jane. So we say:Jane and Lizzy are laughing at each other.Each other and One another are the tworeciprocal pronouns are not individual words butthey are phrases. While using them, there must betwo or more things, persons, or groups involved.Moreover, they all must be acting the same action.Some more examples are:Paul and Jam help each other.Both teams fought hard against each other.Why do you laugh at each other?All the students gave presents to oneanother.Distributive pronounsDistributive pronoun is a pronoun thatdescribes a member of a group separately from thegroup and not collectively or including in thatgroup. It refers to a thing or a person in a group. Weuse this pronoun to describe all the individualmembers of a particular group. Distributivepronoun are commonly used with plural noun andsingular verbwww.literaryenglish.comPage 19

Parts of SpeechDistributive pronouns that are commonlyused are each, either, every, neither, none,everyone, and any.Example in a sentence:Each of the boys writes a poem.Neither of the pens is black.www.literaryenglish.comPage 20

Parts of SpeechChapter 4VerbWhat is a verb?A verb shows the happening or state ofsomething. It is an action word.It can show If somebody does something; like: Thiscat sleeps all day.If something has done onto someone; like: Astranger patted the stray cat.The state of someone or something; like:The cat is alive fortunately.Verb is the most important part of any sentence.A sentence does not make sense without a verb in it.There are some instants where a one-word answercan make up for a whole sentence; like, yes orindeed, etc, without the use of verb, but theseresponses are not used in formal writing.Verbs can also consist of more than one word,such as:The children were playing in the backyard.Types of Verbswww.literaryenglish.comPage 21

Parts of SpeechThese are the main kinds of verbs: LinkingVerbs, Transitive Verbs, Intransitive Verbs,Reflexive Verbs, Auxiliary Verbs and Modal Verbs.Linking VerbsLinking verb is a verb that connects asentence together. It does not mean anything on itsown but makes sense when used in a sentence.Common Linking Verbs that are used are:Is, am, are, was, wereExamples in sentences:The birds are flying high up in the sky.She is always looking fabulous.In the above examples, we can see that thelinking verbs are connecting the subject with therest of the sentence. Without Linking Verbs, thesentences do not have a complete structure.Action VerbsAction verbs show action. They create animage of the happening in your head. There are twokinds of action verbs: Transitive and Intransitive.(a) Transitive Verbs: The verb in a sentence thathas a direct object is known as Transitive verb.www.literaryenglish.comPage 22

Parts of SpeechThe verb should have something on which it isperformed. The sentences containing TransitiveVerbs can also be converted from ActiveVoice to Passive Voice.Look at the examples below:The batsman hit the ball hard.She walked the streets alone.In the first example, we can see that theverb hit has a direct object ball. The sentencecan also be converted into passive voice: thebatsman hit the ball.The same case is with the second sentence. Theverb walked has direct object streets and thesentence can be converted into passive voice:The streets were walked by her, alone.(b) Intransitive Verbs: The verb in a sentence thatdoes not have a direct object is known asIntransitive verb. The sentences containingIntransitive Verbs cannot be convertedfrom Active Voice to Passive Voice. Let us seethe examples below:The lion cub sleeps.The house is flawed.www.literaryenglish.comPage 23

Parts of SpeechIn both of the above examples, there is no directobject. Both cannot be converted into passivevoice too. So, the verbs; sleeps and flawed areintransitive. Most verbs can be used both transitively andintransitively. For example:The child rings the bell.Here the verb ‘rings’ has a direct object andis used transitively.The bell rings loudly.Here the verb ‘rings’ does not have a directobject and is used intransitively.More ExamplesI stopped the car. (Transitively)The car stopped suddenly. (Intransitively)There are some verbs such as: go, sleep, die,fall, etc, which show an action that cannot be doneto anything or anyone. Hence, these verbs can neverbe used Transitively.Reflexive Verbswww.literaryenglish.comPage 24

Parts of SpeechReflexive verbs are those whose subject anddirect object are the same. They refer back to thesame thing or person. Let us see the examplesbelow.She stays home herself.The cat cleans itself.In both the above examples, the verbs arereferring back to the same person. Their subject andobject are the same, hence they are Reflexive Verbs.The reference back is done in fo