Pocket Guide toBrick and CMU ConstructionThis publication 2012 Masonry Institute of Washington.All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by anymeans, conventional or electronic, without written consent obtainedin advance from the Masonry Institute of Washington.

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Table of ContentsUnit Position Terminology4Common Bond Patterns5Brick and CMU ASTM Standards7Condensed ASTM C-9014Condensed ASTM C-21616Mortar Joint Styles18Mortar Types and Proportions19Site Tolerances for Masonry21Control/Expansion Joint Placement23Fire Resistance Ratings25Sound Transmission Ratings27Weep Holes29Flashing29Weather Resistive Barriers30Cleaning Masonry31Water Repellents32Wall System Details34Glossary of Brick and CMU Terms433

Unit Position Soldier4

Common Bond PatternsThere are number of traditional bond patterns used for bothfunctional and aesthetic purposes. Historically, the RunningBond pattern has been the most utilized. It is often usedwhere the width of the unit is half the length (i.e. 8” long x4” wide), allowing ease of use on corners. 1/3rd RunningBond is typically used where the unit width is 1/3 the length(i.e. 12” long x 4” wide). Stack Bond is most effectively usedwith units that have very little size variance, but does not havethe structural strength of Running Bond.Bond patterns such as Flemish Bond, English Bond,Dutch Bond/English Cross, Common Bond - 6thCourse Header and Common Bond - 6th CourseFlemish Header with header units and courses weretraditionally used in double-wythe brick construction to bondseparate wythes together for structural strength. As this typeof construction is no longer widely used, these bond patternsare often utilized solely for aesthetic purposes in moderndesign.Running BondStack Bond5

Common Bond Patterns1/3 Running BondCommon Bond6th Course HeaderFlemish BondCommon Bond6th Course Flemish HeaderEnglish BondEnglish Cross orDutch Bond6

Brick and CMU ASTM StandardsBRICKC 32:Specification for Sewer and Manhole Brick(Made from Clay or Shale)C 43:Terminology of Structural Clay ProductsC 55:Specification for Concrete BrickC 62:Specification for Building Brick (Solid MasonryUnits Made from Clay or Shale)C 67:Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Brickand Structural Clay TileC 73:Specification for Calcium Silicate Brick (SandLime Brick)C 126:Specification for Ceramic Glazed Structural ClayFacing Tile, Facing Brick and Solid MasonryUnitsC 216:Specification for Facing Brick (Solid MasonryUnits Made from Clay or Shale)C 279:Specification for Chemical-Resistant MasonryUnitsC 652:Specification for Hollow Brick (Hollow MasonryUnits Made from Clay or Shale)C 901:Specification for Prefabricated Masonry PanelsC 980:Specification for Industrial Chimney LiningBrickC 1006:Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength ofMasonry Units7

Brick and CMU ASTM StandardsBRICK (Cont.)C 1072:Test Method for Measurements of MasonryFlexural Bond StrengthC 1088:Specification for Thin Veneer Brick Units Madefrom Clay or ShaleC 1261:Specification for Firebox Brick for ResidentialFireplacesC 1298:Guide for Design and Construction of BrickLiners for Industrial ChimneysC 1405:Specification for Glazed Brick (Single Fired,Solid Brick Units)CMUC 75:Sampling AggregatesC 90:Specification for Loadbearing Concrete MasonryUnitsC 129:Specification for Nonloadbearing Concrete MasonryUnitsC 139:Specification for Concrete Masonry Units forConstruction of Catch Basins and ManholesC 140:Test Methods for Sampling and Testing ConcreteMasonry Units and Related UnitsC 331:Lightweight Aggregates for Concrete Masonry UnitsC 426:Test Method for Linear Drying Shrinkage ofConcrete Masonry Units8

Brick and CMU ASTM StandardsCMU (Cont.)C 618:Specification for Coal Flu Ash and Raw or CalcinedNatural Pozzolan for Use as Mineral AdmixtureConcreteC 979:Specification for Pigments for Integrally ColoredConcreteC 1209:Terminology of Concrete Masonry Units and RelatedUnitsC 1262:Test Method for Evaluating the Freeze-ThawDurability of Manufactured Concrete Masonry Unitsand Related ConcreteC 1372:Specification for Segmental Retaining Wall UnitsC 1552:Practice for Capping Concrete Masonry Units,Related Units and Masonry Prisms for CompressionTestingMortar and GroutC 5:Specification for Quicklime for StructuralPurposesC 51:Definition of Terms Relating to Lime andLimestoneC 91:Specification for Masonry CementC 109:Test Method for Compressive Strength ofHydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50mm] Cube Specimens)9

Brick and CMU ASTM StandardsMortar and Grout (Cont.)C 110:Test Methods for Physical Testing of Quicklime,Hydrated Lime, and LimestoneC 143:Test Methods for Slump of Hydraulic CementConcreteC 144:Specification for Aggregate for Masonry MortarC 150:Specification for Portland CementC 185:Test Method for Air Content of HydraulicCement MortarC 207:Specification for Hydrated Lime for MasonryPurposesC 270:Specification for Mortar for Unit MasonryC 395:Standard Specification for Chemical-ResistantResin MortarsC 404:Specification for Aggregates for Masonry GroutC 476:Specification for Grout MasonryC 780:Test Method for Preconstruction andConstruction Evaluation of Mortars for Plainand Reinforced Masonry UnitsC 887:Specification for Packaged, Dry, CombinedMaterials for Surface Bonding MortarC 952:Test Method for Bond Strength of Mortars toMasonry Units10

Brick and CMU ASTM StandardsMortar and Grout (Cont.)C 1019:Test Method for Sampling and Testing GroutC 1142:Specification for Extended Life Mortar for UnitsMasonryC 1180:Terminology of Mortar and Grout for UnitMasonryC 1324:Test Method for Examination and Analysis ofHardened Masonry MortarC 1329:Specification for Mortar CementC 1357:Test Methods for Evaluating Masonry BondStrengthC 1384:Specification for Admixtures for MasonryMortarsC 1403:Test Method for Rate of Water Absorption ofMasonry MortarsC 1437:Test Method for Flow of Hydraulic CementMortarC 1586:Guide for Quality Assurance of MortarsAssembly ComponentsA 82:Cold Drawn Steel Wire for ConcreteReinforcementA 90:Test for Weight of Coating on Zinc-CoatedMasonry (Galvanized) Iron or Steel Articles11

Brick and CMU ASTM StandardsAssembly Components (Cont.)A 123:Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized)Coatings on Iron and Steel ProductsA 496:Deformed Steel Wire for ConcreteReinforcementA 615:Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars forConcrete ReinforcementA 617:Axle-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars forConcrete ReinforcementA 951:Specification for Masonry Joint ReinforcementC 516:Vermiculite Loose Fill InsulationC 549:Perlite Loose Fill InsulationC 920:Specification for Elastomeric Joint SealantsE 488:Test Methods for Strength of Anchors inConcrete and Masonry ElementsE 754:Test Method for Pullout Resistance of Ties andAnchors Embedded in Masonry Mortar JointsPaversC 410:Specification for Industrial Floor BrickC 902:Specification for Pedestrian and Light TrafficPaving BrickC 936:Specification for Solid Concrete InterlockingPaving Units12

Brick and CMU ASTM StandardsPavers (Cont.)C 1272:Standard Specification for Heavy VehicularPaving BrickC 1319:Specification for Concrete Grid Paving UnitsC 1491:Specification for Concrete Roof PaversOther Related StandardsC 901:Prefabricated Masonry ProductsC 1232:Terminology of MasonryC 1314:Test Method for Compressive Strength ofMasonry PrismsC 1400:Guide for Reduction of Efflorescence Potentialin New Masonry WallsC1601:Test Method for the Field Determination ofWater Penetration of Masonry Wall SurfacesE 514:Test Methods for Water Penetration andLeakage Through MasonryE 518:Test Methods for Flexural Bond Strength ofMasonryE 519:Test Methods for Diagonal Tension (Shear) inMasonry AssemblagesE 1857:Guide for Selection of Cleaning Techniques forMasonry, Concrete, and Stucco SurfacesE 2260: Guide for Repointing (Tuckpointing) HistoricMasonry13

ASTM C-90 CondensedOven-Dry Densityof Concrete, lb/ft3 (kg/m3)Maximum WaterAbsorption, lb/ft3(kg/m3)Minimum NetArea CompressiveStrength, lb/ft2Avg of 3 UnitsAvg - 3UnitsIndivUnitAvg - 3UnitsIndivUnitLightweightLess than 105 (1680)18 (288)20 (320)1900(13.1)1700(11.7)Medium Weight105 to less than 125(1680-2000)15 (240)17 (272)1900(13.1)1700(11.7)Normal Weight125 (2000) or more13 (208)15 issible Variations in Dimension: Standard Units: For standard units, no overall dimension(width, height and length) shall differ by more than /1/8 in. (3.2 mm) from the specified dimensions. Particular Feature Units: For particular feature units, thedimensions shall be in accordance with the following:1. For molded face units, no overall dimension shalldiffer by more than /- 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) from thespecified standard dimension. Dimensions of moldedfeatures shall be within /- 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) of thespecified standard dimensions and shall be within /- 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) of the specified placement of themolded feature.2. For split-faced units, all non-split overall dimensionsshall differ by not more than /- 1/8 in. (3.2 mm)from the specified standard dimensions.3. For slump units, no overall height dimension shalldiffer by more than /- 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) from thespecified standard dimension.14

ASTM C-90 CondensedMaterials and Finish: All units shall be sound and free of cracks or other defectsthat interfere with the proper placement of the unitor significantly impair the strength or permanence ofthe construction. Minor cracks, incidental to the usualmethod of manufacture or minor chipping resulting fromcustomary methods of handling in shipment and delivery,are not grounds for rejection. Where units are to be used in exposed wall construction,the face or faces that are to be exposed shall not show chipsor cracks, not otherwise permitted, or other imperfectionswhen viewed from a distance of not less than 20 feet (6.1m) under diffused lighting. Five percent of a shipment containing chips, not largerthan 1 in. (25.4 mm) in any dimension, or cracks notwider than 0.2 in. (0.5 mm) and not longer than 25% ofthe nominal height of the unit, is permitted. The color and texture of units shall be specified by thepurchaser. The finished surfaces that will be exposed inplace shall conform to an approved sample, consisting ofnot less than four units, representing the range of textureand color permitted. A shipment shall not contain more than 5% of units,including broken units, that do not meet these materialsand finishes requirements.15

ASTM C-216 CondensedGrades: Grade SW (Severe Weathering): Brick intended for usewhere high resistance to damage caused by cyclic freezingis desired. Grade MW (Moderate Weathering): Brick intended foruse where moderate resistance to cyclic freezing damageis permissible.When Grade is not specified, the requirements of Grade SWshall govern.Min. CompressiveStrength psi, (MPa)gross areaMax. WaterAbsorption by 5-hBoiling, %Max. SaturationCoefficient*DesignationAvg of 5BrickIndividualAvg of 5BrickIndividualAvg of 5BrickIndividualGrade SW3000(20.7)2500(17.2) MW2500(17.2)2200(15.2)* The saturation coefficient is the ratio of absorption by the 24-h submersion in cold water to that after 5-h submersion in boiling waterTypes: Type FBS: Brick for general use masonry. Type FBX: Brick for general use masonry where a higherdegree of precision and lower permissible variation in sizethan permitted for Type FBS is required. Type FBA: Brick for general use masonry selected toproduce characteristic architectural effects resulting fromnonuniformity in size and texture of individual units.When Type is not specified, the requirements for Type FBSshall govern.16

ASTM C-216 CondensedMaterials and Finish: The brick shall be free of defects, deficiencies and surfacetreatments, including coatings, that would interfere withthe proper laying of the brick or significantly impair thestrength or performance of the construction. The face or faces that will be exposed in place shall be freeof chips that exceed the limits given in the table below.The aggregate length of chips shall not exceed 10% of theperimeter of the face of the brick. Other than chips, the face or faces shall be free of cracks orother imperfections detracting from the appearance of thedesignated sample when viewed from a distance of 15 ft.for Type FBX and 20 ft. for Types FBS and FBA. The number of brick in a delivery that are broken orotherwise fail to meet requirements for chippage andtolerance shall not exceed 5%.Chippage in in.(mm) in fromType%AllowedFBX5% orLessFBS (Plain)10% orLess1/4-5/16FBS(Textured)15% e in in.(mm) in r0-1/4(0-6.4)0-3/8(0-9.5)0-1/2(0-12.7)To meet the designated sample or as specified by the purchaser, but not morethan Type FBS (Textured)17

Mortar Joint StylesConcave JointV JointWeather JointCut Flush JointStruck Flush JointBeaded JointRaked Joint*Struck Joint** Not recommended for exterior use in areas with regular inclement weather18

Mortar Types and ProportionsType M:High compressive strength with low workabilityType S:General all-purpose with high flexural bond strengthType N:General all-purpose with good bonding capability andworkabilityType O:Low strength used mostly for interior applicationsType K:Low compressive and flexural bond strength for tuckpointing historic buildings with lime and sand mortarPortland Cement Lime Mortar (ASTC C270)TypePortlandCementHydrated Limeor Lime PuttyMaximum DampLoose AggregateM11/43S11/24 1/2N116O129K1312Masonry Cement Mortar (ASTM C270)TypePortlandCementMasonryCementM11 (type N)---M---1 (type M)---3S1/21 (type N)---4 1/2S---1 (type S)---3N---1 (type N)---319HydratedMax DampLimeLoose Aggregate6

Mortar Type Selection (ASTM C270)*LocationExterior,Above GradeMortar ing WallType NType S or MNon Load-bearingWallType O**Type N or SType NType SExterior, At orBelow GradeFoundation Wall,Retaining Wall,Manholes, Sewers,Pavements, Walksand PatiosType S***Type M or NInteriorLoad-bearing WallType NType S or MNon-bearingPartitionsType OType NInteriorType OType K or NExterior (Abovegrade, exposed onone side, unlikelyto be frozen whensaturated, not subject to high windsor lateral loads)Type OType N or KExterior (Otherthan conditionslisted above)Type NType OParapet WallTuckpointing * This table does not provide for many specialized mortar uses, such as chimney, reinforcedmasonry, and acid-resistant mortars** Type O mortar is recommended for use where the masonry is unlikely to be frozen whensaturated, or unlikely to be subjected to high winds or other significant lateral loads. Type N orS mortar should be used in other cases.*** Masonry exposed to weather in a nominally horizontal surface is extremely vulnerable toweathering. Mortar for such masonry should be selected with due caution. In some applications, structural concerns may dictate the use of mortars other than thoserecommended. This table is not applicable to pavement applications.20

Site Tolerances for Masonry*Site Tolerances: Erect Masonry within thefollowing tolerances from specified dimensionsDimensions of ElementsIn cross section or elevation- 1/4 in. (6.4 mm); 1/2 in. (12.7 mm)Mortar joint thickness (Assume either 1/2 in. or 3/8 in.thick bed and head joints)Bed joint /- 1/8 in. (3.2 mm)Head joint- 1/4 in. (6.4 mm); 3.8 in. (9.5 mm)Collar joint- 1/4 in. (6.4 mm); 3/8 in. (9.5 mm)ElementsVariation from levelBed joints /- 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) in 10 ft. (3.05 m) /- 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) maximumTop surface ofbearing walls /- 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) in 10 ft. (3.05 m) /- 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) maximumVariation from plumb /- 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) in 10 ft. (3.05 m) /- 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) in 20 ft. (6.10 m) /- 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) maximumContinued on next page21

Site Tolerances for Masonry*Site Tolerances: Erect Masonry within thefollowing tolerances from specified dimensionsElements (Continued)True to line- 1/4 in. (6.4 mm); 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) /- 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) in 20 ft. (6.10 m) /- 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) maximumAlignment of columns and walls (bottom versus top) /- 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) bearing walls /- 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) non-bearingwallsLocation of ElementsIndicated in plan /- 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) in 20 ft. (6.10 m) /- 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) maximumIndicated in elevation /- 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) in story height /- 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) maximum* Source: Building Code Requirements and Specification forMasonry Structures (TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5) and (TMS 602/ACI530.1/ASCE 6)22

Control and Expansion Joint PlacementAt maximum ofone-half controljoint spacingfrom cornersBetween main andintersecting wallAt changes inwall heightAdjacent toopeningAt pilasters andchanges in wallthicknessAdjacent toopeningControl Joints: Used in CMU construction to prevent cracking dueto natural shrinkage of CMU and building movement.Expansion Joints: Used in clay brick construction to preventcracking due to natural expansion of clay brick units and buildingmovement.Typical Control and Expansion joints will be filled with joint sealant,instead of mortar, to accommodate building movement.Expansion Joint Spacing - Brick Veneer (No Openings)*Equation to determine expansion jointspacingSpacing not toexceedSpacing W x E / 0.09W Width of expansion jointE Percent extension of joint sealant(25%-plus extension/compression is common forsealants used on brick)25 Feet* Source: The Brick Industry Association Technical Note 18A: AccommodatingExpansion of Brickwork (November 2006)23

Control and Expansion Joint PlacementControl Joint Spacing - Reinforced CMU Wall Spacing Expressed as Ratio of PanelLength to Height3.0 (Control joint spacing 3.0 xHeight of panel)Spacing not toexceed40 FeetControl Joint Spacing - Reinforced CMU Wall (Solid Grouted)Spacing Expressed as Ratio of PanelLength to Height2.5 (Control joint spacing 2.5 xHeight of panel)Spacing not toexceed32 FeetControl Joint Spacing - CMU Veneer (No openings, Joint reinforcing @ 16” o.c.)Spacing Expressed as Ratio of PanelLength to Height1.5 (Control joint spacing 1.5 x Heightof panel)Spacing not toexceed24 Feet Source: Northwest Concrete Masonry Association Tek Note: Control Joints forConcrete Masonry Crack Control (April 2008)24

Fire Resistance RatingsFire Resistance Ratings of Individual Masonry UnitsClay or shale brick (NominalThickness)*Fire Resistance inHours4-inch Brick1.256-inch Brick2.558-inch Brick4.00Concrete Masonry (NominalThickness)**PartialFill CellsSolidFill Cells1.001.006-inch CMU1.004.008-inch CMU2.004.0010-inch CMU3.004.0012-inch CMU4.004.004-inch CMU* Tested in compliance with ASTM E119** Source: Northwest Concrete Masonry Association Tek Note: ConcreteMasonry Fire Resistance (February 2005)UL Fire Resistance Ratings of Select Masonry Wall Systems Wall AssemblyBrick/Concrete Masonry, Loadbearing 8” loadbearing CMU laid with fullmortar beds, with 9-gage jointreinforcement at 16” o.c. vertically Min. 1” air space with up to 4” rigidinsulation as option 4” clay facing brick laid in mortarDesignNumberFireRatingU9024.00Continued on next page25

Fire Resistance RatingsUL Fire Resistance Ratings of Select Masonry Wall Systems DesignNumberFireRatingBrick Veneer/Steel Stud, Loadbearing 1 layer 5/8” gypsum wallboard 3 1/2”, 20-gage steel studs withmax. spacing at 24” o.c., with 3 1/2”glass fiber batt insulation 2” max. foamed plastic 1” min. air space 4” brick veneer with wall anchorties to studs at 24” o.c.V4341.00Brick Veneer/Steel Stud, Loadbearing 1 layer 5/8” gypsum wallboard 3 1/2”, 20-gage steel studs withmax. spacing at 24” o.c., with 3 1/2”glass fiber batt insulation 4” max.