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GENERAL ACTIVITIESThe general activities include an assortment of activities that may be used at the teacher’s orreader’s discretion for any topic. These activities are not topic sensitive and may be used toenhance any topic.Books Several types of books can be created from the information gleaned from reading any ofthe topics or viewing any of the primary sources contained within each topic.Synthesizing this material by using one of the following types of books can assist thelearner in recalling and making sense of what was read.o Topic Books – Using any topic, create a book that includes illustrations anddefinitions to share with a classmate, a small group, or the library.o Class Book – Using any topic, create an inclusive Glossary of terms learned. Avisual representation of the term may be included for more clarity. For example,each student would be the expert for one topic within an overall lesson. Whencompleted, each student’s topic Glossary would be shared with everyone. A variation of a class book could include a small group of students takingcharge of one topic within a lesson and creating a book that includes keypoints from the reading, along with illustrations and a glossary. Thesecould be included with other small groups for one class book.Brochures Create a brochure covers key points in any assigned reading of a topic.Debate Complete a formal debate based on the following format. NOTE: Teachers may chooseto use a more informal format by eliminating the stringent time frames and havingstudents just take turns expressing views for their side. The objective of this activity is tohave each side critically evaluate current evidence, examine personal convictions basedon values and beliefs, and synthesize relevant information to provide detailedinformation so that others may make an informed decision.o Format – Two teams will be assigned. One team will create an affirmativepresentation while the other team will be responsible for creating a negative oropposing presentation. Page 1

o Debate Guidelinesa. Affirmative Plan (4 minutes) – This is your introduction. What will you bediscussing and why? Get our attention.b. Negative Rebuttal (2 minutes) – This is a direct rebuttal to theAffirmative. This team addresses only those issues identified in theAffirmative Team’s introduction.c. Negative Plan (4 minutes) – This is your introduction. Get our attention.What will you be discussing and why?d. Affirmative Rebuttal (2 minutes) – Direct rebuttal to the negative plan.This team addresses only those issues identified in the Negative’s teamintroduction.e. 10 minute break for preparation/adjustment to argument.f. Negative Argument (10 minutes) – This is the body of the speech. Lay itall out. Facts, stats, primary sources, argue your side. The AffirmativeTeam cannot interrupt during this argument.g. Affirmative Cross Examination (8 minutes) – Ask the tough questions,demand answers, do anything and everything you can to counter theargument of the negative. The Negative Team does not ask questionsback. Their role is to provide answers only.h. Affirmative Arguments (10 minutes) – This is the body of the speech.Again, lay it all out . . . facts, stats, primary sources, argue your side. TheNegative Team cannot interrupt during this argument.i. Negative Cross Examination (8 minutes) – Ask the tough questions,demand answers, do anything and everything you can to counter theargument of the negative. The Affirmative Team does not ask questionsback. Their role is to provide answers only.j. 10 minute break to prepare for closing.k. Affirmative Closing (5 minutes) – Use emotion for a big ending . . . you’veseen the “TV lawyers” present their closing . . . do it here!l. Negative Closing (5 minutes) – Same as Affirmative. Here’s your chance! Involvement by each participant is required. Page 2

Differentiated Demonstration of Knowledge Participants or small groups demonstrate their knowledge of a topic by using one ofseveral formats listed below:o Radio Broadcasto Bulletin Boardo Slide Presentationo Student-generated testo PowerPoint, iMovie, or other electronic presentation toolo News Reporto Oral Historyo Television Reporto Interviewo Demonstrationo Dramatizationo Commercialo Poetryo Playo Role-playo Simulationo Skito Song/Rapo TV Talk Showo Alliteration/Tongue Twistero Mapo Mobileo Brochureo Crossword Puzzleo Fictitious Facebook Pageo Scrapbooko Cartoono Model/Diorama Page 3

Educational Links http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/ – National Archives Teaching WithDocuments: Lesson Plans. On the right of the page are worksheet analyses for thefollowing. These forms are completed online and cannot be saved but may be printedwhen completed.o Written Documentso Artifacto Cartoono Mapo Motion Pictureo Photographo Postero Sound Recordinghttp://docsteach.org/ - The National Archive Experience: Docs Teach. Click on to Createyour own fun and engaging activities. This allows the user to create his/her own learningactivity using primary resources for any of the following:o Finding a sequenceo Focusing on detailso Making connectionso Mapping historyo Seeing the big pictureo Weighing the evidenceo Interpreting datahttp://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/ - Chronicling America is a program of the Library ofCongress. It is easy to pick out North Dakota’s only newspaper, The Bismarck Tribune, inthis collection and to check for topics between 1873 and 1922.http://ourdocuments.gov/ - This site lists the top 100 documents in U.S. history andcould provide additional html - Artful Tools are planning strategies andreflective tools that both teachers and students can use in their learning environment toassist in learning to think critically and to make meaning of their text or documents. Theuse of Artful Tools enhances the ability of teachers and students to pay closer attentionto written, visual, and audio context. There are two types of Artful Tools:1. Critical Response is a structured process that allows responders to pay closeattention to a particular piece of art, text, or performance. Through theguidance of a facilitator, a group responds to these five questions:a. What do you notice? (Describe without judgment: "I notice.") Page 4

b. What does it remind you of? (What memory, experience, story,music, other work does this trigger? There are no wrong answers orassociations.)c. What emotions do you feel as you respond to this work? (Again, nowrong answers.)d. What questions does it raise for you? ("I wonder.")e. What meaning or understanding is intended or conveyed in thiswork?2. Descriptive Review is a reflective protocol grounded in pure description. Notwo people observing the same event or work will see the same thing. Theshared perspective of a group helps the group itself or a presenter tobecome more aware of aspects of a work or lesson that might otherwisehave escaped notice. Descriptive Review is premised on the notion thatdescription without judgment leads to deeper understanding of a subjectbecause it slows down the meaning-making and grounds it in closeobservation of what is actually perceivable.a.b.c. What do you notice? Describe without judgment. ("I notice ")What questions does this work, activity, or subject of inquiry raisefor you? ("I wonder ")What meaning or understanding is intended or conveyed in thiswork? Speculate on the meaning behind a work or what an artist,teacher, or presenter wants learners to understand.http://www.vtshome.org/what-is-vts - Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) Method. In VTSdiscussions, teachers support student growth by facilitating discussions of carefullyselected works of visual art. Teachers are asked to use three open-ended questions:1. What's going on in this picture?2. What do you see that makes you say that?3. What more can we find?Facilitation Techniques: Paraphrase comments neutrally Point at the area being discussed Link and frame student comments Page 5

Students are asked to: Look carefully at works of artTalk about what they observeBack up their ideas with evidenceListen to and consider the views of othersDiscuss many possible riting/teachers.php - Artful Writing PerceiveActivity. Before you read anything about the image, use your powers of observation tolook slowly and closely at the image. Use the following questions as your guide forobserving.1. What do you notice? (Imagine using all your senses.) What do you recognize?2. What feeling do you get from the image? Is there a mood?3. What does this image remind you of? What is going on? What othermeanings could there be?4. What does the image make you wonder about? What more do you want toknow?Jigsaw Activity Divide students into small jigsaw groups (3-6) choosing one student as the leader.Divide the day’s lesson into 3-6 segments, depending on the size of the groups and theamount of material that needs to be covered.Assign each student to learn one segment, making sure students have direct access onlyto their segment.Give students time to read their segment at least twice and become familiar with it.Form temporary “expert groups” by having one student from each jigsaw group joinother students assigned to the same segment to share their information learned.Bring the students back to their original jigsaw group, and have each student sharehis/her segment with the rest of the group.At the end of the session, have some form of assessment (e.g., quiz, discussionquestions, written paper, graphic organizer, etc.) available to check for understanding.This shows students that individual accountability for learning all the information,although presented as a group, is the objective of the activity.North Dakota Map Outlines Page 6

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Poetry Create poetry from reading and studying any topic using one of the following styles:o Couplets (two-line stanza that rhymes).o Triplets (three-line poems). Patterns include ABB (two of the lines rhyme), AAA (all three linesrhyme), ABC (no lines rhyme). A triplet may be written in the shape of atriangle and can be read by starting at any corner.o Haiku Line 1 – five syllables Line 2 – seven syllables Line 3 – five syllableso Cinquain Line 1 – one word (title) Line 2 – two words (describe the title) Line 3 – three words (describe an action) Line 4 – four words (describe a feeling) Line 5 – one word (refer back to the title)o Diamanté (Diamond) Line 1 – one noun (subject #1) Line 2 – two adjectives (describing subject #1) Line 3 – three participles (ending in –ing, telling the subject) Line 4 – four nouns (first two related to subject #1, second two related tosubject #2) Line 5 – three participles (about subject #2) Line 6 – two adjectives (describing subject #2) Line 7 – one noun (subject #2)o ABC Poetry (Start with A and go through the alphabet writing a word for eachletter. This could be completed with one topic or one lesson.o Acrostic Poems (The first letters of the line spell out a word/sentence thatrelates to the topic.)o Lanterns (Japanese poem that is written in the shape of a Japanese lantern.) Line 1 – one syllable Line 2 – two syllablesLine 3 – three syllablesLine 4 – four syllablesLine 5 – one syllable Page 13

Think, Pair, Share Activity After reading, studying, or discussing a particular topic, have participants think aboutthe topic by themselves. Working in pairs, have them share their ideas and thoughtswith each other. This enables the facilitator to observe what the participant’sknowledge is regarding the topic being studied. Then, have pairs of participants sharewith other small groups or with the entire group.Thinking Like A Historian (Mandell, Nikki and Malone, Bobbie. Wisconsin Historical Society Press)What Questions Do We Ask of the Past?Cause and Effect What were the causes of past events?What were the effects?o Who or what made change happen?o Who supported change?o Who did not support change?o Which effects were intended?o Which effects were accidental?o How did events affect people’s lives, community, and the world?Change and Continuity What has changed?What has remained the same?o Who has benefited from this change?o Who has not benefited? Why?Turning Points How did past decisions or actions affect future choices?o How did decisions or actions narrow or eliminate choices for people?o How did decisions or actions significantly transform people’s lives? Page 14

Using the Past How does the past help us make sense of the present?o How is the past similar to the present?o How is the past different from the present?o What can we learn from the past?Through Their Eyes How did people in the past view their world?o How did their worldview affect their choices and actions?o What values, skills, and forms of knowledge did people need to succeed? Page 15