Transcription

Front coverIBM Cognos Dynamic QueryDiscover how Cognos acceleratesquery performanceLearn how to administer theCognos query service effectivelyMaximize the return on youranalytic investmentsNigel CampbellHenk CazemierRobert HatfieldMartin PetitclercGlen SeedsJason Tavoularisibm.com/redbooks

International Technical Support OrganizationIBM Cognos Dynamic QuerySeptember 2013SG24-8121-00

Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” onpage vii.First Edition (September 2013)This edition applies to Version 10, Release 2, Modification 1 of IBM Cognos Business Intelligence (productnumber 5724-W12) Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2013. All rights reserved.Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP ScheduleContract with IBM Corp.

ContentsNotices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiTrademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiiPreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ixAuthors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xNow you can become a published author, too! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiiComments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiiStay connected to IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiiChapter 1. Overview of Cognos Dynamic Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3 Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3.1 Planning and executing the query. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.4 Technology selection guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.4.1 Pure relational analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.4.2 OLAP analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12335677Chapter 2. Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 Configuring the query service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1.1 Memory sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1.2 Throughput sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1.3 Multi-server environments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2 Data source administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2.1 Connection command blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2.2 JDBC drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2.3 OLAP connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2.4 ERP and CRM data sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3 Cache management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3.1 Priming the cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3.2 Clearing the cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3.3 Automating cache operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1112121516171718191920202021Chapter 3. Metadata modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1 Cognos Framework Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2 Goals of metadata modeling relational data sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.1 Modeling for self-service analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3 Framework Manager architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4 Key objects of a relational model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4.1 Query subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4.2 Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4.3 Determinants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4.4 Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.5 Organizing relational models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.5.1 Data view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.5.2 Business logic view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.5.3 Presentation view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2526262627282830313335353636 Copyright IBM Corp. 2013. All rights reserved.iii

3.6 Relational modeling for performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363.6.1 As view versus minimized SQL generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363.6.2 Security-aware caching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39ivChapter 4. Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.1 Macros explained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2 Macro language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2.1 Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2.2 List separator character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2.3 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2.4 Comments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2.5 Simple case construct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.3 Parameter maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4 Session parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.5 Advanced examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.5.1 Member unique name for next year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.5.2 Turning promptmany result into a rowset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.5.3 Dynamic column drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.5.4 Filtering for internal and external customers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434445454546464647495151525355Chapter 5. Report authoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1 Authoring interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1.1 Cognos Workspace Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1.2 Cognos Report Studio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.2 Processing report executions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.2.1 Local and database processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.3 Database functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.4 Dimensional and relational reporting styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.5 Suppression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.6 Dimensional summaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.7 Advanced features in Report Studio’s Query Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.7.1 Reference queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.7.2 Union, intersect, and except queries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.7.3 Join relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.7.4 Master detail relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575858585959606162636464656666Chapter 6. Optimizing SQL for performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.1 Remember that less is faster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.2 Make use of enforced and non-enforced constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.3 Use indexes and table organization features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.4 Review column group statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.5 Avoid complex join and filter expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.5.1 Temporal expressions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.5.2 Expressions on table columns in predicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.6 Reduce explicit or implicit conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.7 Minimize complexity of conditional query items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.8 Review the order of conjunctions and disjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.9 Avoid performance pitfalls in sub-queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.10 Avoid unnecessary outer joins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.11 Avoid using SQL expression to transpose values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.12 Apply predicates before groupings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.13 Trace SQL statements back to reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67686869697070707171808184848687IBM Cognos Dynamic Query

Chapter 7. Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 897.1 Problem solving strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907.1.1 The half-split method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907.2 Error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 927.3 Log files and tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937.3.1 Query planning trace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 947.3.2 Query execution trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 947.4 Dynamic Query Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 957.4.1 Graph nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 967.4.2 Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 977.5 IBM technical support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027.5.1 IBM Support Portal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027.5.2 Service requests and PMRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1037.5.3 IBM Fix Central . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105105105105Contentsv

viIBM Cognos Dynamic Query

NoticesThis information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consultyour local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area. Anyreference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBM product,program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service that does notinfringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the user's responsibility toevaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document. Thefurnishing of this document does not grant you any license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, inwriting, to:IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive, Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A.The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where suchprovisions are inconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATIONPROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS ORIMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT,MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer ofexpress or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically madeto the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM may makeimprovements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication at any timewithout notice.Any references in this information to non-IBM websites are provided for convenience only and do not in anymanner serve as an endorsement of those websites. The materials at those websites are not part of thematerials for this IBM product and use of those websites is at your own risk.IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate without incurringany obligation to you.Any performance data contained herein was determined in a controlled environment. Therefore, the resultsobtained in other operating environments may vary significantly. Some measurements may have been madeon development-level systems and there is no guarantee that these measurements will be the same ongenerally available systems. Furthermore, some measurements may have been estimated throughextrapolation. Actual results may vary. Users of this document should verify the applicable data for theirspecific environment.Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their publishedannouncements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm theaccuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on thecapabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate themas completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products.All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual businessenterprise is entirely coincidental.COPYRIGHT LICENSE:This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrate programmingtechniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs inany form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing applicationprograms conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which the sampleprograms are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM, therefore,cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs. Copyright IBM Corp. 2013. All rights reserved.vii

TrademarksIBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business MachinesCorporation in the United States, other countries, or both. These and other IBM trademarked terms aremarked on their first occurrence in this information with the appropriate symbol ( or ), indicating USregistered or common law trademarks owned by IBM at the time this information was published. Suchtrademarks may also be registered or common law trademarks in other countries. A current list of IBMtrademarks is available on the Web at http://www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtmlThe following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,other countries, or both:BigInsights Cognos DB2 developerWorks IBM IBM PureData InfoSphere PureData Redbooks Redbooks (logo)TM1 The following terms are trademarks of other companies:Adobe, the Adobe logo, and the PostScript logo are either registered trademarks or trademarks of AdobeSystems Incorporated in the United States, and/or other countries.Netezza, and N logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of IBM International Group B.V., an IBMCompany.Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.Microsoft, Windows, and the Windows logo are t